The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2015

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Evaluating health workers’ knowledge following the introduction of clinical mentoring in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria, Ekechi Okereke, Jamilu Tukur, and Ayodeji Oginni

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Evaluating the effect of HIV prevention strategies on uptake of HIV counselling and testing among male most-at-risk-populations in Nigeria: A cross-sectional analysis, Sylvia Adebajo, George I. Eluwa, Jean Njab, Ayodeji Oginni, Francis Ukwuije, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, and Theo Lorenc

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Evaluating the impact of health system strengthening on HIV and sexual risk behaviors in Nigeria, George I. Eluwa, Sylvia Adebajo, Omokhudu Idogho, Oluwole Fajemisin, Jennifer Anyanti, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Experiences with pregnancy among female sex workers in Ethiopia: A Link Up exploratory study, Population Council, Miz-Hasab Research Center, and Organization for Social Services for AIDS

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Factors associated with mental depression among men who have sex with men in southern India, Sangram Kishor Patel, Parimi Prabhakar, and Niranjan Saggurti

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HCV in people who inject drugs: A neglected epidemic, Avina Sarna and Samiran Panda

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Health care coverage among long-distance truckers in India: An evaluation based on the Tanahashi model, Varun Sharma, Niranjan Saggurti, and Shalini Bharat

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HIV and STI prevalence and injection behaviors among people who inject drugs in Nairobi: Results from a 2011 bio-behavioral study using respondent-driven sampling, Waimar Tun, Meredith Sheehy, Dita Broz, Jerry Okal, Nicholas Muraguri, H. Fisher Raymond, Helgar Musyoki, Andrea Kim, Mercy Muthui, and Scott Geibel

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HIV and STI prevalence and risk factors among male sex workers and other men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya, Nicholas Muraguri, Waimar Tun, Jerry Okal, Dita Broz, H. Fisher Raymond, Timothy Kellogg, Sufia Dadabhai, Helgar Musyoki, Meredith Sheehy, David Kuria, Reinhard Kaiser, and Scott Geibel

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HIV, Hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs: High prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C RNA positive infections observed in Delhi, India, Lopamudra Saraswati, Avina Sarna, Mary Philip Sebastian, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Ibou Thior, Julie Pulerwitz, and Waimar Tun

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HIV risk perception and risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Nigeria, George I. Eluwa, Sylvia Adebajo, Stanley Luchters, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Household debt and relation to intimate partner violence and husbands' attitudes toward gender norms: A study among young married couples in rural Maharashtra, India, Elizabeth Reed, Balaiah Donta, Anindita Dasgupta, Mohan Ghule, Madhusudana Battala, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Arun Jadhav, Prajakta Palaye, Niranjan Saggurti, and Anita Raj

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Implementation of a confidential helpline for men having sex with men in India, Ashok Agarwal, Myriam Hamdallah, Suvakanta N. Swain, Sonali Mukherjee, Neetu Singh, Sudip Mahapatra, Elizabeth J. King, Julie Pulerwitz, and Ibou Thior

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Improving hospital-based quality of care by reducing HIV-related stigma: Evaluation results from Vietnam, Julie Pulerwitz, Khuat Thi Hai Oanh, Dayo Akinwolemiwa, Kim Ashburn, and Laura Nyblade

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Intimate partner violence and condom versus other modern contraception use among married women in rural India, Anindita Dasgupta, Niranjan Saggurti, Balaiah Donta, Madhusudana Battala, Mohan Ghule, Saritha Nair, Julie Ritter, Jay G. Silverman, and Anita Raj

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Introducing antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products for women: A guide to strategic decisionmaking and planning, Population Council

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Learning from women about HIV risk, HIV testing behaviors, and prevention practices in Mpumalanga, South Africa: A descriptive study to inform microbicides introduction, Martha Brady, Saiqa Mullick, Barbara Friedland, Marlena Gehret Plagianos, Linda Du Plessis, and Thabiso Mango

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Male sex workers: Practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission, Stefan Baral, M. Reuel Friedman, Scott Geibel, Kevin Rebe, Borche Bozhinov, Daouda Diouf, Keith Sabin, Claire E. Holland, Roy Chan, and Carlos F. Caceres

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Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviors among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Results of a respondent driven sampling study, Helgar Musyoki, Timothy Kellogg, Scott Geibel, Nicholas Muraguri, Jerry Okal, Waimar Tun, H. Fisher Raymond, Sufia Dadabhai, Meredith Sheehy, and Andrea Kim

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Public participation of men who have sex with men in the context of community empowerment in India, Karikalan Nagarajan, Seema Sagay, Deepika Ganju, and Ramesh S. Paranjape

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REacH: Randomized Evaluation of HIV/FP Service Models, Paul C. Hewett, Mutinta Nalubamba, Fiammetta Bozzani, Mardieh Dennis, Jean Digitale, Lung Vu, Eileen Yam, and Mary Nambao

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Sexual and reproductive health among young female sex workers in Bangladesh brothels—Baseline findings from Link Up, Population Council

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Sexual and reproductive health and rights among young people living with HIV in Uganda: Findings from the Link Up baseline survey, Population Council

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Sexual health and HIV risk behaviors of men who have sex with men in Myanmar—Baseline findings from Link Up, Population Council and Burnet Institute

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The WHO concept of sexual health applied to an urban poor community in Mumbai, India, Purnima Mehrotra, Stephen L. Schensul, Niranjan Saggurti, Joseph A. Burleson, and Shubhada Maitra

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To tell or not to tell: Male partner engagement in a Phase 3 microbicide efficacy trial in South Africa, Christine A. Kelly, Barbara Friedland, Neetha S. Morar, Lauren L. Katzen, Gita Ramjee, Mathila Mokgatle, and Khatija Ahmed

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Trend and determinants of unmet need for family planning services among currently married women and sexually active unmarried women aged 15–49 in Nigeria (2003–2013), Ayodeji Oginni, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, and Sylvia Adebajo

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Trends in HIV prevalence, sexual and health seeking behaviors, and HIV-related discrimination among Nigerian youth, Population Council

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Using a 2-stage strategy with respondent-driven sampling to recruit a hard-to-reach population for a placebo microbicide gel clinical trial in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh (India), Waimar Tun, Lauren L. Katzen, Sharon Abbott, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Christine A. Kelly, Avina Sarna, Barbara Friedland, Suniti Solomon, and Barbara Mensch

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‘Women at risk’: The health and social vulnerabilities of the regular female partners of men who inject drugs in Delhi, India, Vartika Sharma, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Mary Philip Sebastian, Olivier Degomme, Lopamudra Saraswati, Ira Madan, Ibou Thior, and Waimar Tun

Submissions from 2014

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Addressing vulnerabilities of female sex workers in an HIV prevention intervention in Mumbai and Thane: Experiences from the Aastha project, Virupax Ranebennur, Sanjeev Singh Gaikwad, Sowmya Ramesh, and Amrita Bhende

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Aligning product development and user perspectives: Social-behavioural dimensions of multipurpose prevention technologies, Martha Brady and Elizabeth E. Tolley

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An appraisal of sexual behaviors, STI/HIV prevalence, and HIV prevention programs among truckers in India: A critical literature review, Damodar Sahu, Arvind Pandey, Ram Manohar Mishra, Niranjan Saggurti, Shekhar Sethu, and Indra Raj Singh

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An overview of the HIV prevention landscape in Zimbabwe: Implications for tenofovir gel, Population Council

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Baseline survey of Nigerian media coverage of youth sexual and reproductive health and HIV and AIDS related issues, January 1st–December 31st, 2012, Population Council

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Brief report: Parent–adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage—Findings from rural India, Anita Raj, Mohan Ghule, Madhusudana Battala, Anindita Dasgupta, Julie Ritter, Saritha Nair, Niranjan Saggurti, Jay G. Silverman, and Balaiah Donta

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Circular labor migration and HIV in India: Exploring heterogeneity in bridge populations connecting areas of high and low HIV infection prevalence, Tanvi Rai, Helen S. Lambert, Annick B. Borquez, Niranjan Saggurti, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, and Helen Ward

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Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria, Sylvia Adebajo, Otibho Obianwu, George I. Eluwa, Lung Vu, Ayodeji Oginni, Waimar Tun, Meredith Sheehy, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, Adebola Bashorun, Omokhudu Idogho, and Andrew Karlyn

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Degree of male mobility as a risk factor for HIV in high in-migration districts of Maharashtra, India, Dipak Suryawanshi, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Varun Sharma, K. Anil Kumar, Niranjan Saggurti, and Shalini Bharat

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Development and pilot testing of HIV screening program integration within public/primary health centers providing antenatal care services in Maharashtra, India, Suchitra V. Bindoria, Ramesh Devkar, Indrani Gupta, Virupax Ranebennur, Niranjan Saggurti, Sowmya Ramesh, Dilip Deshmukh, and Sanjeev Singh Gaikwad

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Documentation of HIV prevention research and programmatic learnings from India—Selected peer-reviewed journal articles and key highlights: 2013-2014 (Volume 2), Population Council

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Effectiveness of a combination prevention strategy for HIV risk reduction with men who have sex with men in Central America: A mid-term evaluation, Rebecca Firestone, Jorge Rivas, Sussy Lungo, A. Cabrera, S. Ruether, Jennifer Wheeler, and Lung Vu

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Effect of peer-led outreach activities on injecting risk behavior among male drug users in Haryana, India, Bindya Jain, Suneeta Krishnan, Sowmya Ramesh, Shrutika Sabarwal, Vijay Garg, and Neeraj Dhingra

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Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India, Suresh Babu Kokku, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Saroj Tucker, Niranjan Saggurti, and Parimi Prabhakar

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Enrollment of adolescents aged 16–17 years old in microbicide trials: An evidence-based approach, Katie D. Schenk, Barbara Friedland, Michelle Chau, Marie Stoner, Marlena Gehret Plagianos, Stephanie Skoler-Karpoff, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Khatija Ahmed, Mary-Jane Malebo Ratlhagana, Pamela Nombali Mthembu, and Nomampondomise Ngcozela

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Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in Southern India, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra and Niranjan Saggurti

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Factors associated with acceptability of HIV self-testing among health care workers in Kenya, Sam Kalibala, Waimar Tun, Peter Cherutich, Anne Nganga, Erick Oweya, and Patricia Oluoch

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Female sex worker's participation in the community mobilization process: Two distinct forms of participations and associated contextual factors, Karikalan Nagarajan, Seema Sahay, Mandar Mainkar, Sucheta Deshpande, Sowmya Ramesh, and Ramesh S. Paranjape

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Financial inclusion of marginalised key populations in southern India, Parimi Prabhakar, Sangram Kishor Patel, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Formative research to develop an intervention for addressing mental health/psychosocial issues and HIV vulnerability of marginalized adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Nrupa Jani and Katie D. Schenk

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From addiction to infection: Managing drug abuse in the context of HIV/AIDS in Africa, Taiwo Akindipe, Lolade Abiodun, Sylvia Adebajo, Rahman Lawal, and Solomon Rataemane

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High HIV incidence in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, India, Avina Sarna, Lopamudra Saraswati, Mary Philip Sebastian, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Dean Lewis, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, and Waimar Tun

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High levels of bisexual behavior and factors associated with bisexual behavior among men having sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria, Meredith Sheehy, Waimar Tun, Lung Vu, Sylvia Adebajo, Otibho Obianwu, and Andrew Karlyn

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HIV/AIDS vulnerabilities, discrimination, and service accessibility among Africa's youth: Insights from a multi-country study, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Scott Geibel, Sam Kalibala, Jerry Okal, Babacar Mane, Nathi Sohaba, Julialynne Walker, and Eric P. Green

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HIV/AIDS vulnerabilities, discrimination, and service accessibility among Nigeria's youth, Population Council

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HIV/AIDS vulnerabilities, discrimination, and service accessibility of Nigeria's youth: Summary of study findings, Population Council

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HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in India: National scenario of an unfinished agenda, Ugra Mohan Jha, Yujwal Raj, Srinivasan Venkatesh, Neeraj Dhingra, Ramesh S. Paranjape, and Niranjan Saggurti

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HIV risk behaviors of male injecting drug users and associated non-condom use with regular female sexual partners in north-east India, Ritu Kumar Mishra, Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh, Melody Lalmuanpuii, Langkham Biangtung, Chumben Humtsoe, and Niranjan Saggurti

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If you build it, will they come? A qualitative investigation into community barriers to accessing paediatric HIV services in Kenya, Katie D. Schenk, Karusa Kiragu, Julie Murugi, and Avina Sarna

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Impact of the RHANI Wives intervention on marital conflict and sexual coercion, Niranjan Saggurti, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Dattaram D. Naik, Madhusudana Battala, Anindita Dasgupta, Balaiah Donta, and Anita Raj

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Influence of customized demand generation as a strategy to increase uptake of voluntary counseling and testing services amongst sex workers in Mumbai and Thane, Samita Bhardwaj, Sowmya Ramesh, and Sanjeev Singh Gaikwad

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Integration of HIV and other health programmes: Implications and challenges, Sangram Kishor Patel

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Investing in communities: Evaluating the added value of community mobilization on HIV prevention outcomes among FSWs in India, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, Christine Galavotti, Philip Hastings, Pradeep Narayanan, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Making the cut: Evidence-based lessons for improving the informed consent process for voluntary medical male circumcision in Swaziland and Zambia, Katie D. Schenk, Barbara Friedland, Meredith Sheehy, Louis Apicella, and Paul C. Hewett

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Male circumcision and sexual risk behaviors may contribute to considerable ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence in Kenya: An ecological analysis, Chris Richard Kenyon, Lung Vu, Joris Menten, and Brendan Maughan-Brown

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Men’s heavy alcohol use and risk of HIV acquisition and transmission to sexual partners within marriage in India, Niranjan Saggurti, Shrutika Sabarwal, and Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

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Money, power and HIV: Economic influences and HIV among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa, Andrew Scheibe, Brian Kanyemba, Jennifer Syvertsen, Sylvia Adebajo, and Stefan Baral

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Non-disclosure of violence among female sex workers: Evidence from a large scale cross-sectional survey in India, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Madhusudana Battala, Akash Porwal, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Non-paying partnerships and its association with HIV risk behavior, program exposure and service utilization among female sex workers in India, Sandra Mary Travasso, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Niranjan Saggurti, and Suneeta Krishnan

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Patterns of drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) and their implications for sexually transmitted infections in northern Nigeria, Desmond Iriaye, Ibrahim Suleiman, Otibho Obianwu, Sylvia Adebajo, George I. Eluwa, Jean Njab, Ayodeji Oginni, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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PMTCT cascade analysis in Côte d'Ivoire: Results from a national representative sample, Stephen S. Gloyd, Julia Robinson, Serge A. Dali, S. Adam Granato, Rebecca Bartlein, Seydou Kouyate, David Aka, Doroux A. Billy, Irma Ahoba, and Ahoua Kone

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Policy and programme considerations for ARV-based prevention for women: Insights from key opinion leaders in Zimbabwe about tenofovir gel, Samukeliso Dube, Barbara Friedland, Saiqa Mullick, Martha Brady, and C. Elizabeth McGrory

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Pretreatment loss-to-follow-up after HIV diagnosis from 27 counseling and testing centers across India: Findings from a cohort study, Avina Sarna, Mary Philip Sebastian, Damodar Bachani, Ruchi Sogarwal, and Madhusudana Battala

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Program and policy considerations for tenofovir gel in India: An overview, Population Council

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Provider alerts and reminders to improve tuberculosis care among people living with HIV in Kenya: TB Tech formative report, Caricia Catalani, Eric P. Green, Lameck Diero, Jane Carter, Martin Were, Dennis Israelski, Adrian Gardner, Charity Ndwiga, and Paul Biondich

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Reconceptualizing the HIV epidemiology and prevention needs of female sex workers (FSW) in Swaziland, Stefan Baral, Sosthenes Ketende, Jessie L. Green, Ping-An Chen, Ashley Grosso, Bheki Sithole, Cebisile Ntshangase, Eileen Yam, Deanna Kerrigan, Caitlin E. Kennedy, and Darrin Adams

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Retention of adolescents living with HIV in care, treatment, and support programs in Uganda, Livingstone Ssali, Sam Kalibala, Josephine Birungi, Aggrey Egessa, Jonathan Wangisi, Joanne Lyavala Okullu, Celestin Bakanda, Stephen Okoboi, and Francis Obare

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Role of a community-to-community learning strategy in the institutionalization of community mobilization among female sex workers in India, Santhosh Sadhu, Archana Rao Manukonda, Anthony Reddy Yeruva, Sangram Kishor Patel, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Setting the stage for ARV-based prevention for women: A snapshot of the Zimbabwean context, Population Council

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Socio-demographic factors associated with uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among Nigerian youth, Ayodeji Oginni, Otibho Obianwu, and Sylvia Adebajo

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Socioeconomic and behavioral factors influencing choice, adherence and success of microbicide formulations, Elizabeth E. Tolley, Barbara Friedland, Mitzy Gafos, K. Rivet Amico, Lut Van Damme, Cynthia Woodsong, Kathleen M. MacQueen, Leila Mansoor, and Sheena McCormack

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Tackling stigma: Fundamental to an AIDS-free future, Julie Pulerwitz and John Bongaarts

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Tenofovir gel for HIV prevention for women: Perspectives of key opinion leaders from India, Abhijit Prabhughate, Avina Sarna, and Martha Brady

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The effect of mobility on sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men in southern India, Sowmya Ramesh, Purnima Mehrotra, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Deepika Ganju, Karikalan Nagarajan, and Niranjan Saggurti

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The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): Using social science to inform PrEP interventions among female sex workers, Jennifer Syvertsen, Angela M. Robertson Bazzi, Andrew Scheibe, Sylvia Adebajo, Stephanie A. Strathdee, and Wendee M. Wechsberg

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What HIV programs work for adolescent girls?, Karen Hardee, Jill Gay, Melanie Croce-Galis, and Nana Ama Afari-Dwamena

Submissions from 2013

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Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its effect on survival of HIV-infected individuals in Jharkhand, India, Sandeep Rai, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Subhashish Sircar, Pinnamaneni Yujwal Raj, Srinivasan Venkatesh, Mohammed Shaukat, and Bharat Bhusan Rewari

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Alcohol and condom use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative female sex workers in Nagaland, India, Amenia Nuken, Michelle Kermode, Niranjan Saggurti, Greg Armstrong, and Gajendra Kumar Medhi

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An evaluation of methods to improve the reporting of adherence in a placebo gel trial in Andhra Pradesh, India, Sharon Abbott, Barbara Friedland, Avina Sarna, Lauren L. Katzen, Ulrike Rawiel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, C.S. Shalini, Waimar Tun, Christine A. Kelly, Suniti Solomon, and Barbara Mensch

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A profile on HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among injecting drug users in Nigeria: Should we be alarmed?, George I. Eluwa, Stephanie A. Strathdee, Samson B. Adebayo, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, and Sylvia Adebajo

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Are female sex workers able to negotiate condom use with male clients? The case of mobile FSWs in four high HIV prevalence states of India, Shalini Bharat, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Suchismita Roy, and Niranjan Saggurti

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A toolkit for developing bilingual lexicons for international HIV prevention clinical trials, Catalina B. Ramirez, Natasha Mack, and Barbara Friedland

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Characteristics of female sex workers in southern India willing and unwilling to participate in a placebo gel trial, Barbara Mensch, Barbara Friedland, Sharon Abbott, Lauren L. Katzen, Waimar Tun, Christine A. Kelly, Avina Sarna, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, and Suniti Solomon

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Community collectivization and its association with consistent condom use and STI treatment-seeking behaviors among female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men/transgenders in Andhra Pradesh, India, Niranjan Saggurti, Ram Manohar Mishra, Laxminarayana Proddutoor, Saroj Tucker, Dolly Kovvali, Parimi Prabhakar, and Tisha Wheeler

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Comparing estimates of multiple and concurrent partnerships across population based surveys: Implications for combination HIV prevention, Martina Morris, Lung Vu, Ayn Leslie-Cook, Eniko Akom, Aloo Stephen, and Donna Sherard

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Condoms and condiments: Compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa, Scott Geibel

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Degree and correlates of sexual mixing in female sex workers in Karnataka, India, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Catherine M. Lowndes, Kaveri Gurav, Banadakoppa M. Ramesh, Stephen Moses, Reynold G. Washington, and Michel Alary

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Documentation of HIV prevention research and programmatic learnings from India—Selected peer-reviewed journal publications from the Knowledge Network Project (Volume 1), Population Council

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Effectiveness of a community-based positive prevention intervention for people living with HIV who are not receiving antiretroviral treatment: A prospective cohort study, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Eustasius Musenge, Jerry Okal, Matthew F. Chersich, Waimar Tun, Sabine Mall, Nzioki King'ola, and Sam Kalibala

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Effect of computer-assisted interviewing on self-reported sexual behavior data in a microbicide clinical trial, Pamina M. Gorbach, Barbara Mensch, Marla Husnik, Astou Coly, Benoit R. Masse, Bonus Makanani, Chiwawa Nkhoma, Lameck Chinula, Tchangani Tembo, Stanley J. Mierzwa, Kimberly Reynolds, Stacey Hurst, Anne S. Coletti, and Andrew Forsyth