The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2018

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Female sex workers living with HIV in Tanzania have both a need for contraception and a desire to have children in the future, Project SOAR

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Gender-transformative Bandebereho couples’ intervention to promote male engagement in reproductive and maternal health and violence prevention in Rwanda: Findings from a randomized controlled trial, Kate Doyle, Ruti G. Levtov, Gary Barker, Gautam G. Bastian, Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, Shamsi Kazimbaya, Anicet Nzabonimpa, Julie Pulerwitz, Felix Sayinzoga, Vandana Sharma, and Dominick Shattuck

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Health and socioeconomic well-being of young people living with HIV in Zambia: Evaluating the ZAMFAM Project, Project SOAR

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High burden of HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers in Tanzania: Implications for early treatment of HIV and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), Lung Vu and Kavita Misra

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High rates of sexual violence by both intimate and non-intimate partners experienced by adolescent girls and young women in Kenya and Zambia: Findings around violence and other negative health outcomes, Sanyukta Mathur, Jerry Okal, Maurice Musheke, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Sangram Kishor Patel, Ruchira Bhattacharya, Nrupa Jani, James K. Matheka, Lunda Banda, Drosin Mulenga, and Julie Pulerwitz

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How empowered are girls/young women in their sexual relationships? Relationship power, HIV risk, and partner violence in Kenya, Julie Pulerwitz, Sanyukta Mathur, and Daniel Woznica

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Implementing the HIV “treat all” guidelines in Namibia: Patient and health provider perspectives, Project SOAR

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Individual and network factors associated with HIV care continuum outcomes among Nigerian MSM accessing healthcare services, Habib O. Ramadhani, Nicaise Ndembi, Rebecca G. Nowak, Uchenna Ononaku, Jerry Gwamna, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Sylvia Adebajo, Trevor A. Crowell, Hongjie Liu, Stefan Baral, Julie Ake, Manhattan E. Charurat, and TRUST/RV368 Study Group

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Male partners of adolescent girls and young women: Relationship characteristics and HIV risk—Findings from DREAMS implementation science research, Population Council

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Male partners of young women in Uganda: Understanding their relationships and use of HIV testing, Ann Gottert, Julie Pulerwitz, Godfrey Siu, Anne Katahoire, Jerry Okal, Florence Ayebare, Nrupa Jani, Pamela Keilig, and Sanyukta Mathur

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Measuring intersecting stigma among key populations living with HIV: Implementing the people living with HIV Stigma Index 2.0, Barbara Friedland, Laurel Sprague, Laura Nyblade, Stefan Baral, Julie Pulerwitz, Ann Gottert, Ugochukwu Amanyeiwe, Alison Cheng, Christoforos Mallouris, Florence Anam, Aasha Jackson, and Scott Geibel

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Measuring vulnerability among female sex workers in India using a multidimensional framework, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Ruchira Bhattacharya, Yamini Atmavilas, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Modeling the expected cost-effectiveness and impact of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in Uganda and Swaziland, Project SOAR

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Molecular screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance markers in Nigerian men who have sex with men and transgender women, Akindiran Akintunde, Justin Hardick, Trevor A. Crowell, Kara Lombardi, Sunday Odeyemi, Andrew Ivo, George I. Eluwa, Jean Njab, Stefan Baral, Rebecca G. Nowak, Thomas C. Quinn, Kent Barbian, Sarah Anzick, Sylvia Adebajo, Manhattan E. Charurat, Julie Ake, and Charlotte A. Gaydos

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Namibia has a strong foundation for implementing the treat all guidelines and reaching the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, Project SOAR

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Optimizing implementation of universal HIV treatment coverage for people living with HIV in Senegal, Project SOAR

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Provider perspectives on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: The role of provider biases and quality of care, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Nrupa Jani, Sanyukta Mathur, Catherine Kahabuka, Vaibhav Saria, Neema Makyao, Louis Apicella, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Reducing provider-held stigma and improving young client satisfaction in strengthening integrated delivery of and access to comprehensive HIV and sexual/reproductive health and support services for MSM in Lagos, Nigeria, Population Council

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Replication Data for: Provider perspectives on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: The role of provider biases and quality of care, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Nrupa Jani, Sanyukta Mathur, Catherine Kahabuka, Vaibhav Saria, Neema Makyao, Louis Apicella, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Strengthening capacity to prevent HIV among adolescent girls and young women: Supporting DREAMS-like programming, Project SOAR

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Understanding the dynamics of HIV testing services in South African primary care facilities, Tonderai Mabuto, Bhakti Hansoti, Salome Charalambous, and Christopher Hoffmann

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Uptake of HIV self‐testing and linkage to treatment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria: A pilot programme using key opinion leaders to reach MSM, Waimar Tun, Lung Vu, Osasuyi Dirisu, Adekemi Sekoni, Elizabeth Shoyemi, Jean Njab, Sade Ogunsola, and Sylvia Adebajo

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What do we know about the HIV risk characteristics of adolescent girls and young women in Kenya? Findings from DREAMS Implementation Science research, Population Council

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What do we know about the HIV risk characteristics of adolescent girls and young women in Zambia? Findings from DREAMS implementation science research, Population Council

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Who are the male partners of adolescent girls and young women in Swaziland? Analysis of survey data from community venues across 19 DREAMS districts, Zahra Reynolds, Ann Gottert, Erin Luben, Bheki Mamba, Patrick Shabangu, Nsindiso Dlamini, Muhle Dlamini, Sanyukta Mathur, and Julie Pulerwitz

Submissions from 2017

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Adolescent girls and young women’s perceptions of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis introduction in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Are we meeting the HIV service needs of people living in informal settlements in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa?, Project SOAR

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Assessing HIV-related outcomes among key populations accessing community-based test and start services in Nigeria, Project SOAR

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Assessment of comprehensive HIV-risk reduction programming for adolescent girls and young women: Implementation science research in Kenya, Population Council

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Assessment of comprehensive HIV-risk reduction programming for adolescent girls and young women: Implementation science research in Zambia, Population Council

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Assessment of the implementation of the treat-all guidelines (Test and Start) in Namibia, Project SOAR

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A systems approach to improving delivery and update of facility-based HIV testing and linkage to care in South Africa, Project SOAR

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Characteristics associated with HIV and HSV-2 among adolescents in Malawi, Barbara Mensch and Erica Soler-Hampejsek

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Considerations for PrEP introduction to adolescent girls and young women: Implementation science research in Tanzania, Population Council

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Correlates of health care utilization under targeted interventions: The case of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India, Varun Sharma, Dipak Suryawanshi, Niranjan Saggurti, and Shalini Bharat

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Effective engagement of male partners of adolescent girls and young women in HIV services: Implementation science research in Swaziland, Population Council

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Effective engagement of male partners of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa, Population Council

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Effective engagement of male partners of adolescent girls and young women in Uganda, Population Council

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Effect of a family-centered model of HIV care on viral suppression and care retention among HIV-positive children in Swaziland, Project SOAR

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Evaluating community-facility linkage models to promote mother-infant retention along the HIV care continuum, Project SOAR

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Evaluation a depression treatment program on HIV care and mental health outcomes in Malawi, Project SOAR

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Evaluation of the “One Community” program in Malawi, Project SOAR

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Evaluation of the PEPFAR/USAID Asibonisane Community Responses Program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Project SOAR

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Factors associated with HIV testing among young men who have sex with men in Myanmar: A cross-sectional study, Minh D. Pham, Poe Poe Aung, Aye Kyawt Paing, Naanki Pasricha, Paul A. Agius, Waimar Tun, Ashish Bajracharya, and Stanley Luchters

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Family planning for HIV-positive girls and young women, Eileen Yam, Elizabeth Tobey, and Amy Ong Tsui

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Gender differentials in feeding practices, health care utilization and nutritional status of children in Northern India, Abhishek Singh and Sangram Kishor Patel

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HIV and disabilities: Time for more and better data, Waimar Tun and Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala

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HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviour of young brothel and non-brothel based female sex workers in Nigeria, Uchenna Onyekachi Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Okekearu Ifeanyi, Sylvia Adebajo, and Hubertus Van den Borne

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Impact of an HIV prevention intervention on HIV risk behavior and sexually transmitted infection among female sex workers in Tamil Nadu, India, Joseph D. Williams, Arumugam Vijayaraman, Priya Krishnaswamy, Niranjan Saggurti, Sowmya Ramesh, and Deepika Ganju

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Improving uptake of HIV testing services and linkage to care after diagnosis in Kenya, Project SOAR

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Increasing uptake of HIV, sexually transmitted infection, and family planning services, and reducing HIV-related risk behaviors among youth living with HIV in Uganda, Lung Vu, Brady Zieman, Cecily Banura, Jerry Okal, Margret Elang, Rodgers Ampwera, Georgina Caswell, Diana Amanyire, Jacquelyne Alesi, and Eileen Yam

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Inequitable gender norms from early adolescence to young adulthood in Uganda: Tool validation and differences across age groups, Lung Vu, Julie Pulerwitz, Brady Zieman, Cecily Banura, Jerry Okal, and Eileen Yam

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Introducing oral pre-exposure prophylaxis to adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: Overview of findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Linking sexual and reproductive health and rights and HIV services for young people: The Link Up project, Lucy Stackpool-Moore, Divya Bajpai, Georgina Caswell, Tyler Crone, Fleur Dewar, Greg Gray, Allen Kyendikuwa, Julie Mellin, Andrew Miller, Felicity Morgan, Luisa Orza, Jacqui Stevenson, Nienke Westerhof, Felicia Wong, Eileen Yam, and Brady Zieman

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Men's perceptions of PrEP use by their adolescent and young adult female partners in Tanzania in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Men's perceptions of treatment as prevention in South Africa: Implications for engagement in HIV care and treatment, Alyssa C. Mooney, Ann Gottert, Nomhle Khoza, Dumisani Rebombo, Jennifer Hove, Aimee Julien Suarez, Rhian Twine, Catherine MacPhail, Sarah Treves-Kagan, Kathleen Kahn, Audrey Pettifor, and Sheri A. Lippman

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Optimizing community services for an improved continuum of HIV care, Project SOAR

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Parents' and guardians' perceptions of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis introduction in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Paying for sex by young men who live on the streets in Dhaka City: Compounded sexual risk in a vulnerable migrant community, Tracy McClair, Tarik Hossain, Nargis Sultana, Brady Zieman, Eileen Yam, Sharif M.I. Hossain, Reena Yasmin, Najmus Sadiq, Michele R. Decker, and Saifuddin Ahmed

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Policymakers' perceptions of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis introduction in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Pregnancy experiences of female sex workers in Adama City, Ethiopia: Complexity of partner relationships and pregnancy intentions, Eileen Yam, Aklilu Kidanu, Brady Zieman, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Jerry Okal, Assefa Bekele, Daniel Gudeta, and Georgina Caswell

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Preventing pediatric tuberculosis: A randomized trial of symptom-based screening of South African children exposed to tuberculosis, Population Council

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Private sector costing of voluntary medical male circumcision in South Africa, Michel Tchuenche and Steven Forsythe

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Project YES! Youth engaging for success: A peer mentoring program to transition youth to HIV self-management in Zambia, Project SOAR

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Providers' views on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Rates of HIV and HSV-2 among young people in Machinga, Malawi, Barbara Mensch and Erica Soler-Hampejsek

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Reducing HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women, and their partners through the DREAMS Partnership in Malawi, Project SOAR

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Religious differentials in morbidity prevalence and health care seeking behaviours among older persons in India, Gopal Agrawal and Sangram Kishor Patel

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Service utilization and cost of implementing a comprehensive HIV prevention and care program among people who inject drugs in Delhi, India, Mary Philip Sebastian, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lopamudra Saraswati, Asha Singh, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Waimar Tun, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, and Avina Sarna

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Sibling and family-level clustering of underweight children in northern India, Abhishek Singh, P. Arokiasamy, Jalandhar Pradhan, Kshipra Jain, and Sangram Kishor Patel

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Stakeholder considerations for PrEP introduction to adolescent girls and young women: Laying the groundwork for research utilization in Tanzania, Population Council

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Stigma, access to healthcare, and HIV risks among men who sell sex to men in Nigeria, Trevor A. Crowell, Babajide Keshinro, Stefan Baral, Sheree Schwartz, Shauna Stahlman, Rebecca G. Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, William A. Blattner, Manhattan E. Charurat, and Julie Ake

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Stigma reduction training improves healthcare provider attitudes toward, and experiences of, young marginalized people in Bangladesh, Scott Geibel, Sharif M.I. Hossain, Julie Pulerwitz, Nargis Sultana, Tarik Hossain, Shongkour Roy, Brady Zieman, Lucy Stackpool-Moore, Barbara Friedland, Reena Yasmin, Najmus Sadiq, and Eileen Yam

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Stigma, violence and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in sex work in Maharashtra, India, Deepika Ganju and Niranjan Saggurti

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Strengthening capacity in HIV operations research: Reflections on a Project SOAR workshop in Johannesburg, South Africa, Project SOAR

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Transitioning couple’s voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) from stand-alone weekend services into routine antenatal and VCT services in government clinics in Zambia’s two largest cities, Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Lauren A. Canary, Nancy L. Czaicki, Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe, Roy Chavuma, Kristin M. Wall, Amanda Tichacek, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Elwyn Chomba, and Susan Allen

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Trends and determinants of comprehensive knowledge of HIV among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria: 2003–2013, Ayodeji Oginni, Sylvia Adebajo, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Updating the people living with HIV stigma index, Project SOAR

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Using brothel leadership to promote condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Abuja, Nigeria: Study protocol for a cluster randomized pilot trial, Uchenna Onyekachi Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Okekearu Ifeanyi, Sylvia Adebajo, Adaora Uzoh, Egbe Aneotah Awo, Chukwuemeka Chima, Ogechukwu Agwagwa, and Bart van den Borne

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Women and substance use: A qualitative study on sexual and reproductive health of women who use drugs in Delhi, India, Vartika Sharma, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Lopamudra Saraswati, Ibou Thior, Ira Madan, and Stanley Luchters

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Youth engagement in developing an implementation science research agenda on adolescent HIV testing and care linkages in sub-Saharan Africa, Julie Denison, Audrey Pettifor, Lynne Mofenson, Susan Kasedde, Rebecca Marcus, Katongo J. Konayuma, Katlego Koboto, Mmangaliso Luyanda Ngcobo, Julie Pulerwitz, and Deanna Kerrigan

Submissions from 2016

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Access to money and relation to women’s use of family planning methods among young married women in rural India, Elizabeth Reed, Balaiah Donta, Anindita Dasgupta, Mohan Ghule, Madhusudana Battala, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Arun Jadhav, Prajakta Palaye, Niranjan Saggurti, and Anita Raj

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Addressing intimate partner violence and power in relationships in HIV testing services: Results of an intervention piloted in Nairobi, Kenya, Nicole Haberland, Charity Ndwiga, Katharine McCarthy, Margaret Makanyengo, Rose Kosgei, Cecilia Choi, Julie Pulerwitz, and Sam Kalibala

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An integrated peer outreach and clinic-based intervention to improve the sexual health of young men who have sex with men in Myanmar: A Link Up evaluation, Population Council

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Annual cost of antiretroviral therapy among three service delivery models in Uganda, Lung Vu, Samuel Waliggo, Brady Zieman, Nrupa Jani, Lydia Buzaalirwa, Stephen Okoboi, Jerry Okal, Nagesh N. Borse, and Sam Kalibala

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Assessment of linkages from HIV testing to enrolment and retention in HIV care in Central Mozambique, Celso Inguane, Stephen S. Gloyd, João Luis Manuel, Charlene Brown, Vincent Wong, Orvalho Augusto, Wisal Mustafa Hassan, Lúcia Viera, Pires Afonso, Mehol Jamnadás, Jama Joy Bernard, James Cowan, Sam Kalibala, and James Pfeiffer

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Association between tribal status and spacing contraceptive use in rural Maharashtra, India, Madhusudana Battala, Anita Raj, Mohan Ghule, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Anindita Dasgupta, Balaiah Donta, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Association of medical male circumcision and antiretroviral therapy scale-up with community HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda, Xiangrong Kong, Godfrey Kigozi, Joseph Ssekasanvu, Fred Nalugoda, Gertrude Nakigozi, Anthony Ndyanabo, Tom Lutalo, Steven J. Reynolds, Robert Ssekubugu, Joseph Kagaayi, Eva Bugos, Larry W. Chang, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Mary Grabowski, Amanda Berman, Thomas C. Quinn, David Serwadda, Maria J. Wawer, and Ronald H. Gray

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Building evidence to guide PrEP introduction for adolescent girls and young women, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Sanyukta Mathur, Ann Gottert, Naomi Rutenberg, and Julie Pulerwitz

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CHARM, a gender equity and family planning intervention for men and couples in rural India: Protocol for the cluster randomized controlled trial evaluation, Jennifer Yore, Anindita Dasgupta, Mohan Ghule, Madhusudana Battala, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Niranjan Saggurti, Balaiah Donta, and Anita Raj

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Climate change and climate-induced disasters in Odisha, eastern India: Impacts, adaptation and future policy implications, Sangram Kishor Patel

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Cluster randomized controlled trial evaluation of a gender equity and family planning intervention for married men and couples in rural India, Anita Raj, Mohan Ghule, Julie Ritter, Madhusudana Battala, Gajanan Velhal, Saritha Nair, Anindita Dasgupta, Jay G. Silverman, Balaiah Donta, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Community collectivization and consistent condom use among female sex workers in southern India: Evidence from two rounds of behavioral tracking surveys, Shanti Vejella, Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, and Parimi Prabhakar

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Condoms, lubricants and rectal cleansing: Practices associated with heterosexual penile-anal intercourse amongst participants in an HIV prevention trial in South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, Zoe Duby, Miriam Hartmann, Elizabeth T. Montgomery, Christopher J. Colvin, Barbara Mensch, and Ariane van der Straten

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Contribution of a large-scale HIV prevention program on condom use by long-distance truck drivers in India: A decomposition analysis, Damodar Sahu, Niranjan Saggurti, Ram Manohar Mishra, Deepika Ganju, Laxmikant Chavan, and Arvind Pandey

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Developing an implementation science research agenda to improve the treatment and care outcomes among adolescents living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, Julie Denison, Audrey Pettifor, Lynne Mofenson, and Deanna Kerrigan

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Does mass-media public communication campaign normalize discussion, attitude and behavior about condom use among married men in India?, Dipak Suryawanshi, Sangram Kishor Patel, Rajatashuvra Adhikary, and Shalini Bharat

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Does shifting gender norms on the community level lead to increased HIV services uptake?, Project SOAR

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Editorial—Lessons learned and study results from HIVCore: An HIV implementation science initiative, Naomi Rutenberg, Waimar Tun, and Nagesh N. Borse

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Estimating the costs of providing voluntary medical male circumcision in South Africa, Project SOAR