The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2010

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Looking back, moving forward: Understanding the HIV risk and sexual health needs of men who have sex with men, Horizons studies 2001 to 2008, Scott Geibel, Waimar Tun, Placide Tapsoba, and Scott E. Kellerman

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Monitoring and Evaluation of the Emergency Plan Progress (MEEPP): End-of-project evaluation, Sam Kalibala

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Nonresponse in repeat population-based voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in rural Malawi, Francis Obare Onyango

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PEPFAR special initiative on sexual and gender-based violence: Baseline report, Lynne Elson and Jill Keesbury

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Perceived stigma among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment: A prospective randomised trial comparing an m-DOT strategy with standard-of-care in Kenya, Susan Kaai, Sandra Bullock, Avina Sarna, Scott Geibel, Naomi Rutenberg, Matthew F. Chersich, Stanley Luchters, Paul Munyao, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, and Marleen Temmerman

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Prevention with positives: How do we reach them in the community?, Avina Sarna, Jerry Okal, Stanley Luchters, Nzioki King'ola, and Scott Geibel

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Protecting hope: Situation analysis of vulnerable children in Uganda 2009, Sam Kalibala and Lynne Elson

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RAPIDS evaluation final report 2005-2009 key findings, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, and Hena Khan

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Reducing HIV-related stigma: Lessons learned from Horizons research and programs, Julie Pulerwitz, Annie P. Michaelis, Ellen Weiss, Lisanne Brown, and Vaishali Sharma Mahendra

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Sexual health, marital sex, and sexual risk in urban poor communities in India, Martha J. Bojko, Stephen L. Schensul, Rajendra Singh, Joseph A. Burleson, Lwendo S. Moonzwe, and Niranjan Saggurti

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"She's a professional like anyone else": Social identity among Brazilian sex workers, Laura R. Murray, Sheri A. Lippman, Angela Donini, and Deanna Kerrigan

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Social-environmental factors and protective sexual behavior among sex workers: The Encontros intervention in Brazil, Sheri A. Lippman, Angela Donini, Juan Diaz, Magda Chinaglia, Arthur Reingold, and Deanna Kerrigan

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The changing face of U.S. funding for HIV programs in resource-limited settings, Scott E. Kellerman

Submissions from 2009

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Acceptability and use of the female condom and diaphragm among sex workers in Dominican Republic: Results from a prospective study, Diana K. Lara, Daniel Grossman, Jhoanne Muñoz, Santo Rosario, Bayardo Gómez, and Sandra G. García

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Acceptance of repeat population-based voluntary counselling and testing for HIV in rural Malawi, Francis Obare Onyango, P. Fleming, P. Anglewicz, R. Thomton, F. Martinson, A. Kapatuka, M. Poulin, Susan Watkins, and Hans Peter Kohler

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A longitudinal quality-of-life study of HIV-infected persons in South India: The case for comprehensive clinical care and support services, Suniti Solomon, Ashita Batavia, Kartik K. Venkatesh, Lisanne Brown, Praneeta Verma, Anitha J. Cecelia, Celine Daly, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, N. Kumarasamy, and Kenneth H. Mayer

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Anal use of the female condom: Does uncertainty justify provider inaction?, Joanne E. Mantell, Elizabeth A. Kelvin, Theresa M. Exner, Susie Hoffman, Zena A. Stein, and Sarah L. Needham Engebretsen

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Changes in sexual risk taking with antiretroviral treatment: Influence of context and gender norms in Mombasa, Kenya, Avina Sarna, Matthew F. Chersich, Jerry Okoth Okal, Stanley Luchters, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Naomi Rutenberg, and Marleen Temmerman

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Commercial sex workers in five Ethiopian cities: A baseline survey for USAID Targeted HIV Prevention Program for most-at-risk populations, Woldemariam Girma and Annabel Erulkar

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Community interventions providing care and support to orphans and vulnerable children: A review of evaluation evidence, Katie D. Schenk

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Comprehensive care and HIV prophylaxis after sexual assault in rural South Africa: The Refentse intervention study, Julia C. Kim, Ian Askew, Lufuno Muvhango, Ntabozuko Dwane, Tanya Abramsky, Stephen Jan, Ennica Ntlemo, Jane Chege, and Charlotte Watts

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Engaging men who have sex with men in operations research in Kenya, Washington Onyango-Ouma, Harriet Birungi, and Scott Geibel

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Evaluation of HIV counseling and testing in ANC settings and adherence to short course antiretroviral prophylaxis for PMTCT in Francistown, Botswana, Carolyn Baek, Tracy Creek, Lee Ann Jones, Louis Apicella, Jennifer Redner, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Family centred approach for HIV services: Pilot study in South Africa, Meredith Sheehy, Nomtandazo Patricia Mini, Tonicah Maphanga, and Scott E. Kellerman

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Final evaluation of the project for expanding the role of networks of people living with HIV/AIDS, Young-Mi Kim, John Lukwago, and Stella Neema

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Formative evaluation: Presidential Initiative on AIDS Strategy for Communication to Youth, Netsayi N. Mudege and Chi-Chi Undie

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Gender norms in South Africa: Implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution, Joanne E. Mantell, Sarah L. Needham Engebretsen, Jennifer Ann Smit, Susie Hoffman, Queen Cebekhulu, Jessica Adams-Skinner, Theresa M. Exner, Zonke Mabude, Mags Beksinska, Zena A. Stein, and Cecilia Milford

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HIV testing, treatment and prevention: Generic tools for operational research, Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer, Sarah Bott, Patrizia Carrieri, Michelle Parsons, Julie Pulerwitz, Naomi Rutenberg, and Avina Sarna

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Hospice Africa Uganda: End-of-project evaluation of palliative care services, Annette Bongiovanni and Mary Alexis Greenan

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"If you start thinking positively, you won't miss sex": Narratives of sexual (in)activity among people living with HIV in Nairobi's informal settlements, Chi-Chi Undie, Abdhalah Kasiira Ziraba, Nyovani Janet Madise, John Kebaso, and Elizabeth Kimani-Murage

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Integrating quality postnatal care into PMTCT in Swaziland, Goldy Mazia, I. Narayanan, Charlotte E. Warren, Mohammed Mahdi, P. Chibuye, A. Walligo, P. Mabuza, Rachel Shongwe, and M. Hainsworth

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Intimate partner violence functions as both a risk marker and risk factor for women's HIV infection: Findings from Indian husband-wife dyads, Michele R. Decker, George R. Seage, David Hemenway, Anita Raj, Niranjan Saggurti, Balaiah Donta, and Jay G. Silverman

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Kenyan in-school youths' level of understanding of abstinence, being faithful, and consistent condom use terms: Implications for HIV-prevention programs, Tiffany Lillie, Julie Pulerwitz, and Barbara Curbow

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Many vaginal microbicide trial participants acknowledged they had misreported sensitive sexual behavior in face-to-face interviews, Abigail Norris Turner, Alana de Kock, Amy Meehan-Ritter, Kelly Blanchard, Mohlatlego H. Sebola, Anwar Hoosen, Nicol Coetzee, and Charlotte Ellertson

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Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, Adrian D. Smith, Placide Tapsoba, Norbert Peshu, Eduard J. Sanders, and Harold W. Jaffe

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Migration, mobility and sexual risk behavior in Mumbai, India: Mobile men with non-residential wife show increased risk, Niranjan Saggurti, Stephen L. Schensul, and Ravi K. Verma

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Multilevel perspectives on community intervention: An example from an Indo-US HIV prevention project in Mumbai, India, Stephen L. Schensul, Niranjan Saggurti, Rajendra Singh, Ravi K. Verma, Bonnie K. Nastasi, and Papiya Guha Mazumder

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Pilot community-based intervention to address the needs of elderly caregivers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, Priscilla Reddy, Shegs James, H. Mutumba Bilay-Boon, Eka Esu-Williams, and Hena Khan

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Preventive service needs of young people perinatally infected with HIV in Uganda, Harriet Birungi, Francis Obare Onyango, John Frank Mugisha, Humphres Evelia, and Juliana K. Nyombi

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Sexual behavior and desires among adolescents perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda: Implications for programming, Harriet Birungi, John Frank Mugisha, Francis Obare Onyango, and Juliana K. Nyombi

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Sexual risk reduction among married women and men in urban India: An anthropological intervention, Stephen L. Schensul, Ravi K. Verma, Bonnie K. Nastasi, Niranjan Saggurti, and Abdelwahed Mekki-Berrada

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Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, Jerry Okal, Stanley Luchters, Scott Geibel, Matthew F. Chersich, Daniel Lango, and Marleen Temmerman

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Technical assistance to the Uganda AIDS Commission for operationallisation of the performance monitoring and management plan, Frederick Makumbi, Roy Mayega, David Kisitu, Juliet Sekandi, Denis A. Bwesigye, Robert Miller, and Sam Kalibala

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The AFFORD Health Marketing Initiative in Uganda: Mid-term evaluation, Oleksandr Rohozynsky, Christie Billingsley, and Annette Bongiovanni

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The feasibility of integrating alcohol risk-reduction counseling into existing VCT services in Kenya, Caroline Mackenzie, Karusa Kiragu, George Odingo, Rukia Yassin, Peter Shikuku, Patrick Angala, William Sinkele, Melania Akinyi, and Nduku Kilonzo

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The impact of a community-based pilot health education intervention for older people as caregivers of orphaned and sick children as a result of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, Hermien Boon, Robert A.C. Ruiter, Shegs James, Bart van den Borne, Eka Esu-Williams, and Priscilla Reddy

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The overlooked epidemic: Addressing HIV prevention and treatment among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa, National AIDS Control Council of Kenya and Population Council

Submissions from 2008

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Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants amongst HIV patients in India, Avina Sarna, Sanjay Pujari, A.K. Sengar, Rajiv Garg, Indrani Gupta, and Johannes van Dam

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An assessment of the Positive Partnership Project in Thailand: Key considerations for scaling-up microcredit loans for HIV-positive and negative pairs in other settings, Mechai Viravaidya, R.C. Wolf, and Philip Guest

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Assessment of risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the metropolitan area of Campinas City, Brazil, using respondent-driven sampling, Maeve de Mello, Adriana de Araujo Pinho, Magda Chinaglia, Waimar Tun, Aristides Barbosa Junior, Maria Cristina, F.J. Ilario, Paulo Reis, Regina C.S. Salles, Suzanne Westman, and Juan Diaz

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Assessment of risk factors for HIV infection in female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, Magda Chinaglia, Waimar Tun, Maeve Mello, Magdalena Insfran, and Juan Diaz

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Barriers to the community support of orphans and vulnerable youth in Rwanda, Tonya R. Thurman, Leslie Snider, Neil W. Boris, Edward Kalisa, Laetitia N. Nyirazinyoye, and Lisanne Brown

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Caring for caregivers: An HIV/AIDS workplace intervention for hospital staff in Zambia—Evaluation results, Karusa Kiragu, Mutinta Nyumbu, Thabale J. Ngulube, Panganani Njobvu, Chilufya Mwaba, Arthur Kalimbwe, and Spike Bradford

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Catalyzing personal and social change around gender, sexuality, and HIV: Impact evaluation of Puntos de Encuentro´s communication strategy in Nicaragua, Irela Solorzano, Amy Bank, Rodolfo Pena, Henry Espinoza, Mary Ellsberg, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Circumstances and motivations for fostering children in Zambia, Katie D. Schenk, Lewis Ndhlovu, Stephen Tembo, Andson Nsune, Chozi Nkhata, Batuke Walusiku, and Charlotte Watts

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Community development and HIV/STI-related vulnerability among female sex workers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Deanna Kerrigan, Paulo Telles, Helena Torres, Cheryl Overs, and Christopher Castle

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Consentement éclairé dans les essais de prévention du VIH: Points saillants d'un atelier international, Population Council

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Consentimento informado nos ensaios de prevenção do HIV: Pontos altos dum workshop internacional, Population Council

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Consentimiento informado en ensayos de prevención del VIH: Aspectos destacados de un taller internacional, Population Council

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'Dare to Be Different': Enhancing life skills education for HIV prevention in South African schools, Tobey Nelson Sapiano, Nathi Sohaba, and Eka Esu-Williams

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Depressive symptoms in youth heads of household in Rwanda: Correlates and implications for intervention, Neil W. Boris, Lisanne A. Brown, Tonya R. Thurman, Janet C. Rice, Leslie M. Snider, Joseph Ntaganira, and Laetitia N. Nyirazinyoye

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Desire for motherhood: Exploring HIV-positive women's desires, intentions and decision-making in attaining motherhood, S. Kanniappan, M.J. Jeyapaul, and Shvveta Kalyanwala

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Differentiating normal from abnormal rates of genital epithelial findings in vaginal microbicide trials, Janneke van de Wijgert, Peter H. Kilmarx, Heidi E. Jones, John M. Karon, and Supaporn Chaikummao

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Engaging communities in supporting HIV prevention and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zambia, Fiona Samuels, Joseph Simbaya, Avina Sarna, Scott Geibel, Phillimon Ndubani, and Jolly Kamwanga

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Exploring context and dynamics of homosexual experiences among rural youth in India, Ajay Kumar Singh, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, and Ravi K. Verma

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Factors associated with self-reported unprotected anal sex among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, Scott Geibel, Stanley Luchters, Nzioki King'ola, Eka Esu-Williams, Agnes Rinyiru, and Waimar Tun

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Food on the table: The role of livelihood strategies in maintaining nutritional status among ART patients in Kenya and Zambia, Fiona Samuels, Naomi Rutenberg, Joseph Simbaya, Jerry Okal, Nicodemus Kisengese, Stanley Luchters, Susan Kaai, and Scott Geibel

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Gender-related differences in quality of life domains of persons living with HIV/AIDS in South India in the era prior to greater access to antiretroviral therapy, Suniti Solomon, Kartik K. Venkatesh, Lisanne Brown, Praneeta Verma, Anitha J. Cecelia, Celine Daly, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, N. Cheng, N. Kumarasamy, and Kenneth H. Mayer

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Helping youth prevent HIV: An evaluation of the Straight Talk program in Uganda, Susan E. Adamchak, Karusa Kiragu, Cathy Watson, Medard Muhwezi, Tobey Nelson Sapiano, Ann Akia-Fiedler, Richard Kibombo, and Milka Juma

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HIV-related stigma, service utilization, and status disclosure among truck drivers crossing the Southern borders in Brazil, Julie Pulerwitz, Annie P. Michaelis, Sheri A. Lippman, Magda Chinaglia, and Juan Diaz

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HIV risk behaviours among contracted and non-contracted male migrant workers in India: Potential role of labor contractors and contractual systems in HIV prevention, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Anrudh K. Jain, Saumya Ramarao, Anil K. Kumar, Anjaneyalu Subbiah, Hamini Reddy Modugu, Shiva S. Halli, and Shalini Bharat

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HIV voluntary counseling and testing and behavioral risk reduction in developing countries: A meta-analysis, 1990–2005, Julie Denison, Kevin R. O'Reilly, George P. Schmid, Caitlin E. Kennedy, and Michael D. Sweat

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Idhini fahamishi katika majaribio ya kikliniki ya ukingaji wa virusi vya ukimwi, Population Council

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If you build it, will they come? Kenya healthy start pediatric HIV study: A diagnostic study investigating barriers to HIV treatment and care among children, Karusa Kiragu, Katie D. Schenk, Julie Murugi, and Avina Sarna

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Improving hospital-based quality of care in Vietnam by reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination, Khuat Thi Hai Oanh, Kim Ashburn, Julie Pulerwitz, Jessica Ogden, and Laura Nyblade

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Imvume unolwazi ocwaningweni lokuvimbela igciwane lesandulela ngculaza, Population Council

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Informed consent in HIV prevention trials: Highlights from an international workshop, Population Council

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Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among married Indian women, Jay G. Silverman, Michele R. Decker, Niranjan Saggurti, Donta Balaiah, and Anita Raj

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Involving young people in the care and support of people living with HIV in Zambia: An evaluation of program sustainability, Eka Esu-Williams, Catherine Searle, and Anderson Zulu

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Is it feasible to integrate alcohol-related risk reduction counseling into VCT services? Findings from Kenya, Caroline Mackenzie, Karusa Kiragu, George Odingo, Rukia Yassin, Peter Shikuku, Patrick Angala, Nduku Kilonzo, William Sinkele, and Melania Akinyi

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Measuring attitudes toward gender norms among young men in Brazil: Development and psychometric evaluation of the GEM scale, Julie Pulerwitz and Gary Barker

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Migration/mobility and vulnerability to HIV among male migrant workers: Andhra Pradesh 2007-08, Niranjan Saggurti, Anrudh K. Jain, Saumya RamaRao, Hanimi Reddy Modugu, Ajay Kumar Singh, Suvakanta N. Swain, and Ravi K. Verma

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Migration/mobility and vulnerability to HIV among male migrant workers: Karnataka 2007-08, Shiva S. Halli, Raluca Buzdugan, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Anrudh K. Jain, Saumya RamaRao, Ajay Kumar Singh, and Suvakanta N. Swain

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Migration/mobility and vulnerability to HIV among male migrant workers: Maharashtra 2007-08, K. Anil Kumar, Shalini Bharat, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Anrudh K. Jain, Saumya RamaRao, Kanchan Mukherjee, Ajay Kumar Singh, and Suvakanta N. Swain

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Migration/mobility and vulnerability to HIV among male migrant workers: Tamil Nadu 2007-08, Anjaneyalu Subbiah, S. Ramachandran, A.K. Ravi Shankar, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Anrudh K. Jain, Saumya RamaRao, Suvakanta N. Swain, and Ajay Kumar Singh

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Moving forward: Tackling stigma in a Tanzanian community, Laura Nyblade, Kerry MacQuarrie, Gideon Kwesigabo, Aparna Jain, Lusajo Kajula, Fausta Philip, William Henerico Tibesigwa, and Jessie K. Mbwambo

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No increase in cervicovaginal proinflammatory cytokines after Carraguard use in a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, Liesbeth J.M. Bollen, Kelly Blanchard, Peter H. Kilmarx, Supaporn Chaikummao, Cathy Connolly, Punneporn Wasinrapee, Nucharee Srivirojana, Jullapong Achalapong, Jordan W. Tappero, and Janet M. McNicholl

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Patterns and implications of male migration for HIV prevention strategies in Karnataka, India, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Pranita Achyut, Saumya RamaRao, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Patterns and implications of male migration for HIV prevention strategies in Maharashtra, India, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Anrudh K. Jain, Pranita Achyut, and Saumya RamaRao

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Patterns of migration/mobility and HIV risk among female sex workers: Andhra Pradesh 2007-08, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Hanimi Reddy Modugu, Saumya RamaRao, Ajay Kumar Singh, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Patterns of migration/mobility and HIV risk among female sex workers: Karnataka 2007-08, Shiva S. Halli, Raluca Buzdugan, Ravi K. Verma, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Anrudh K. Jain, Saumya RamaRao, Suvakanta N. Swain, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Patterns of migration/mobility and HIV risk among female sex workers: Maharashtra 2007-08, Niranjan Saggurti, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Rajendra Singh, Saumya RamaRao, Suvakanta N. Swain, Ajay Kumar Singh, Anrudh K. Jain, and Ravi K. Verma

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Patterns of migration/mobility and HIV risk among female sex workers: Tamil Nadu 2007-08, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Suvakanta N. Swain, Hanimi Reddy Modugu, Ajay Kumar Singh, Saumya RamaRao, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Promoting gender equity as a strategy to reduce HIV risk and gender-based violence among young men in India, Ravi K. Verma, Julie Pulerwitz, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Sujata Khandekar, A.K. Singh, S.S. Das, Sunil Mehra, Anita Nura, and Gary Barker

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Propiciando cambio personal y social alrededor del género, sexualidad y VIH: Evaluación de impacto de la estrategia de comunicación de Puntos de Encuentro en Nicaragua, Irela Solorzano, Amy Bank, Rodolfo Pena, Henry Espinoza, Mary Ellsberg, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Repositioning postnatal care in a high HIV environment: Swaziland, Charlotte E. Warren, Rachel Shongwe, Allen Waligo, Mohammed Mahdi, Goldy Mazia, and Indira Narayanan

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Safer sexual behaviors after 12 months of antiretroviral treatment in Mombasa, Kenya: A prospective cohort, Stanley Luchters, Avina Sarna, Scott Geibel, Matthew F. Chersich, Paul Munyao, Susan Kaai, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Khadija Shikely, Naomi Rutenberg, and Marleen Temmerman

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Sakhi Saheli: Promoting gender equity and empowering young women—A training manual, CORO and Horizons Program

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School as a workplace in Kenya: Evaluation of the Teachers Matter HIV/AIDS project, Karusa Kiragu, Caroline Mackenzie, Jennifer Weiss, Murungaru Kimani, and Debbie Gachuhi

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Sexual risk behavior and HAART: A comparative study of HIV-infected persons on HAART and on preventive therapy in Kenya, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Scott Geibel, Susan Kaai, Paul Munyao, Khadija Shikely, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Johannes van Dam, and Marleen Temmerman