The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2017

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Policymakers' perceptions of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis introduction in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Pregnancy experiences of female sex workers in Adama City, Ethiopia: Complexity of partner relationships and pregnancy intentions, Eileen Yam, Aklilu Kidanu, Brady Zieman, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Jerry Okal, Assefa Bekele, Daniel Gudeta, and Georgina Caswell

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Preventing pediatric tuberculosis: A randomized trial of symptom-based screening of South African children exposed to tuberculosis, Population Council

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Private sector costing of voluntary medical male circumcision in South Africa, Michel Tchuenche and Steven Forsythe

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Project YES! Youth engaging for success: A peer mentoring program to transition youth to HIV self-management in Zambia, Project SOAR

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Providers' views on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Rates of HIV and HSV-2 among young people in Machinga, Malawi, Barbara Mensch and Erica Soler-Hampejsek

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Reducing HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women, and their partners through the DREAMS Partnership in Malawi, Project SOAR

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Religious differentials in morbidity prevalence and health care seeking behaviours among older persons in India, Gopal Agrawal and Sangram Kishor Patel

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Service utilization and cost of implementing a comprehensive HIV prevention and care program among people who inject drugs in Delhi, India, Mary Philip Sebastian, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lopamudra Saraswati, Asha Singh, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Waimar Tun, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, and Avina Sarna

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Sibling and family-level clustering of underweight children in northern India, Abhishek Singh, P. Arokiasamy, Jalandhar Pradhan, Kshipra Jain, and Sangram Kishor Patel

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Stakeholder considerations for PrEP introduction to adolescent girls and young women: Laying the groundwork for research utilization in Tanzania, Population Council

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Stigma, access to healthcare, and HIV risks among men who sell sex to men in Nigeria, Trevor A. Crowell, Babajide Keshinro, Stefan Baral, Sheree Schwartz, Shauna Stahlman, Rebecca G. Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, William A. Blattner, Manhattan E. Charurat, and Julie Ake

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Stigma reduction training improves healthcare provider attitudes toward, and experiences of, young marginalized people in Bangladesh, Scott Geibel, Sharif M.I. Hossain, Julie Pulerwitz, Nargis Sultana, Tarik Hossain, Shongkour Roy, Brady Zieman, Lucy Stackpool-Moore, Barbara Friedland, Reena Yasmin, Najmus Sadiq, and Eileen Yam

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Stigma, violence and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in sex work in Maharashtra, India, Deepika Ganju and Niranjan Saggurti

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Strengthening capacity in HIV operations research: Reflections on a Project SOAR workshop in Johannesburg, South Africa, Project SOAR

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Transitioning couple’s voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) from stand-alone weekend services into routine antenatal and VCT services in government clinics in Zambia’s two largest cities, Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Lauren A. Canary, Nancy L. Czaicki, Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe, Roy Chavuma, Kristin M. Wall, Amanda Tichacek, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Elwyn Chomba, and Susan Allen

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Trends and determinants of comprehensive knowledge of HIV among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria: 2003–2013, Ayodeji Oginni, Sylvia Adebajo, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Updating the people living with HIV stigma index, Project SOAR

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Using brothel leadership to promote condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Abuja, Nigeria: Study protocol for a cluster randomized pilot trial, Uchenna Onyekachi Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Okekearu Ifeanyi, Sylvia Adebajo, Adaora Uzoh, Egbe Aneotah Awo, Chukwuemeka Chima, Ogechukwu Agwagwa, and Bart van den Borne

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Women and substance use: A qualitative study on sexual and reproductive health of women who use drugs in Delhi, India, Vartika Sharma, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Lopamudra Saraswati, Ibou Thior, Ira Madan, and Stanley Luchters

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Youth engagement in developing an implementation science research agenda on adolescent HIV testing and care linkages in sub-Saharan Africa, Julie Denison, Audrey Pettifor, Lynne Mofenson, Susan Kasedde, Rebecca Marcus, Katongo J. Konayuma, Katlego Koboto, Mmangaliso Luyanda Ngcobo, Julie Pulerwitz, and Deanna Kerrigan

Submissions from 2016

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Access to money and relation to women’s use of family planning methods among young married women in rural India, Elizabeth Reed, Balaiah Donta, Anindita Dasgupta, Mohan Ghule, Madhusudana Battala, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Arun Jadhav, Prajakta Palaye, Niranjan Saggurti, and Anita Raj

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Addressing intimate partner violence and power in relationships in HIV testing services: Results of an intervention piloted in Nairobi, Kenya, Nicole Haberland, Charity Ndwiga, Katharine McCarthy, Margaret Makanyengo, Rose Kosgei, Cecilia Choi, Julie Pulerwitz, and Sam Kalibala

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An integrated peer outreach and clinic-based intervention to improve the sexual health of young men who have sex with men in Myanmar: A Link Up evaluation, Population Council

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Annual cost of antiretroviral therapy among three service delivery models in Uganda, Lung Vu, Samuel Waliggo, Brady Zieman, Nrupa Jani, Lydia Buzaalirwa, Stephen Okoboi, Jerry Okal, Nagesh N. Borse, and Sam Kalibala

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Assessment of linkages from HIV testing to enrolment and retention in HIV care in Central Mozambique, Celso Inguane, Stephen S. Gloyd, João Luis Manuel, Charlene Brown, Vincent Wong, Orvalho Augusto, Wisal Mustafa Hassan, Lúcia Viera, Pires Afonso, Mehol Jamnadás, Jama Joy Bernard, James Cowan, Sam Kalibala, and James Pfeiffer

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Association between community collectivization and mental depression among men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India, Dipak Suryawanshi, Sangram Kishor Patel, V. Sharma, Rajatashuvra Adhikary, and Shalini Bharat

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Association between tribal status and spacing contraceptive use in rural Maharashtra, India, Madhusudana Battala, Anita Raj, Mohan Ghule, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Anindita Dasgupta, Balaiah Donta, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Association of medical male circumcision and antiretroviral therapy scale-up with community HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda, Xiangrong Kong, Godfrey Kigozi, Joseph Ssekasanvu, Fred Nalugoda, Gertrude Nakigozi, Anthony Ndyanabo, Tom Lutalo, Steven J. Reynolds, Robert Ssekubugu, Joseph Kagaayi, Eva Bugos, Larry W. Chang, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Mary Grabowski, Amanda Berman, Thomas C. Quinn, David Serwadda, Maria J. Wawer, and Ronald H. Gray

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Building evidence to guide PrEP introduction for adolescent girls and young women, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Sanyukta Mathur, Ann Gottert, Naomi Rutenberg, and Julie Pulerwitz

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CHARM, a gender equity and family planning intervention for men and couples in rural India: Protocol for the cluster randomized controlled trial evaluation, Jennifer Yore, Anindita Dasgupta, Mohan Ghule, Madhusudana Battala, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Niranjan Saggurti, Balaiah Donta, and Anita Raj

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Climate change and climate-induced disasters in Odisha, eastern India: Impacts, adaptation and future policy implications, Sangram Kishor Patel

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Cluster randomized controlled trial evaluation of a gender equity and family planning intervention for married men and couples in rural India, Anita Raj, Mohan Ghule, Julie Ritter, Madhusudana Battala, Gajanan Velhal, Saritha Nair, Anindita Dasgupta, Jay G. Silverman, Balaiah Donta, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Community collectivization and consistent condom use among female sex workers in southern India: Evidence from two rounds of behavioral tracking surveys, Shanti Vejella, Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, and Parimi Prabhakar

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Condoms, lubricants and rectal cleansing: Practices associated with heterosexual penile-anal intercourse amongst participants in an HIV prevention trial in South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, Zoe Duby, Miriam Hartmann, Elizabeth T. Montgomery, Christopher J. Colvin, Barbara Mensch, and Ariane van der Straten

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Contribution of a large-scale HIV prevention program on condom use by long-distance truck drivers in India: A decomposition analysis, Damodar Sahu, Niranjan Saggurti, Ram Manohar Mishra, Deepika Ganju, Laxmikant Chavan, and Arvind Pandey

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Developing an implementation science research agenda to improve the treatment and care outcomes among adolescents living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, Julie Denison, Audrey Pettifor, Lynne Mofenson, and Deanna Kerrigan

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Does mass-media public communication campaign normalize discussion, attitude and behavior about condom use among married men in India?, Dipak Suryawanshi, Sangram Kishor Patel, Rajatashuvra Adhikary, and Shalini Bharat

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Does shifting gender norms on the community level lead to increased HIV services uptake?, Project SOAR

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Editorial—Lessons learned and study results from HIVCore: An HIV implementation science initiative, Naomi Rutenberg, Waimar Tun, and Nagesh N. Borse

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Estimating the costs of providing voluntary medical male circumcision in South Africa, Project SOAR

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Experiences in implementation and publication of operations research interventions: Gaps and a way forward, Sam Kalibala, Godfrey Woelk, Stephen S. Gloyd, Nrupa Jani, Lynnette Kay, Avina Sarna, Jerry Okal, Charity Ndwiga, Nicole Haberland, and Irit Sinai

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Factors associated with HIV testing among male injecting drug users: Findings from a cross-sectional behavioural and biological survey in Manipur and Nagaland, India, Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Factors associated with long-term antiretroviral therapy attrition among adolescents in rural Uganda: A retrospective study, Stephen Okoboi, Livingstone Ssali, Aisha I. Yansaneh, Celestin Bakanda, Josephine Birungi, Sophie Nantume, Joanne Lyavala Okullu, Alana R. Sharp, David M. Moore, and Sam Kalibala

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Factors associated with the likelihood of further movement among mobile female sex workers in India: A multinomial logit approach, Dipak Suryawanshi, Varun Sharma, Niranjan Saggurti, and Shalini Bharat

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Family, community, and health system considerations for reducing the burden of pediatric sickle cell disease in Uganda through newborn screening, Nancy S. Green, Sanyukta Mathur, Sarah Kiguli, Julie Makani, Victoria Fashakan, Philip LaRussa, Magdalena Lyimo, Elaine J. Abrams, Lukia Mulumba, and Ezekiel Mupere

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Family violence and maltreatment of women during the perinatal period: Associations with infant morbidity in Indian slum communities, Jay G. Silverman, Balaiah Donta, Michele R. Decker, Sabrina Boyce, Julie Ritter, Dattaram D. Naik, Saritha Nair, Niranjan Saggurti, and Anita Raj

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Fatherhood, marriage and HIV risk among young men in rural Uganda, Sanyukta Mathur, Jenny A. Higgins, Nityanjali Thummalachetty, Mariko Rasmussen, Laura Kelley, Neema Nakyanjo, Fred Nalugoda, and John S. Santelli

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Food insufficiency, violence and HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers in India, Sangram Kishor Patel, Madhusudana Battala, and Rajatashuvra Adhikary

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High prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men and transgender women attending trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, Babajide Keshinro, Trevor A. Crowell, Rebecca G. Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, Sheila Peel, Charlotte A. Gaydos, Cristina Rodriguez-Hart, Stefan Baral, Melissa J. Walsh, Ogbonnaya S. Njoku, Sunday Odeyemi, Teclaire Ngo-Ndomb, William A. Blattner, Merlin L. Robb, Manhattan E. Charurat, Julie Ake, and TRUST/RV368 Study Group

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How to reduce HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa? Implementation science around the DREAMS Initiative, Population Council

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Impact of a community-based, HIV intervention on antiretroviral treatment retention and adherence in Tanzania, Project SOAR

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Impact of peer education and on-site clinical services for female sex workers in Bangladesh brothels: A Link Up evaluation study, Population Council

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Intimate partner violence among married couples in India and contraceptive use reported by women but not husbands, Elizabeth Reed, Niranjan Saggurti, Balaiah Donta, Julie Ritter, Anindita Dasgupta, Mohan Ghule, Madhusudana Battala, Saritha Nair, Jay G. Silverman, Arun Jadhav, Prajakta Palaye, and Anita Raj

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Kenyan female sex workers’ use of female-controlled non-barrier modern contraception: Do they use condoms less consistently?, Eileen Yam, Jerry Okal, Helgar Musyoki, Nicholas Muraguri, Waimar Tun, Meredith Sheehy, and Scott Geibel

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Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: A cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India, Deepika Ganju, Sangram Kishor Patel, Parimi Prabhakar, and Rajatashuvra Adhikary

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Lessons learned from respondent-driven sampling recruitment in Nairobi: Experiences from the field, Jerry Okal, H. Fisher Raymond, Waimar Tun, Helgar Musyoki, Sufia Dadabhai, Dita Broz, Joan Nyamu, David Kuria, Nicholas Muraguri, and Scott Geibel

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Lifestyle health risk factors and multiple non-communicable diseases among the adult population in India: A cross-sectional study, Gopal Agrawal, Sangram Kishor Patel, and Ashok Agarwal

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Limited accessibility to HIV services for persons with disabilities living with HIV in Ghana, Uganda and Zambia, Waimar Tun, Jerry Okal, Katie D. Schenk, Selina F. Esantsi, Felix Mutale, Rita Kyeremaa, Edson Ngirabakunzi, Hilary Asiah, Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo, and Grimond Moono

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Maternal morbidity associated with violence and maltreatment from husbands and in-laws: Findings from Indian slum communities, Jay G. Silverman, Balaiah Donta, Julie Ritter, Anindita Dasgupta, Sabrina Boyce, Michele R. Decker, Dattaram D. Naik, Saritha Nair, Niranjan Saggurti, and Anita Raj

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Opportunities and challenges in conducting secondary analysis of HIV programmes using data from routine health information systems and personal health information, Stephen S. Gloyd, Bradley H. Wagenaar, Godfrey Woelk, and Sam Kalibala

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PrEP introduction for adolescent girls and young women, Sanyukta Mathur, Nanlesta Pilgrim, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Project SOAR's approach to research utilization, Project SOAR

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Project SOAR's voluntary medical male circumcision portfolio, Project SOAR

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Randomized evaluation and cost-effectiveness of HIV and sexual and reproductive health service referral and linkage models in Zambia, Paul C. Hewett, Mutinta Nalubamba, Fiammetta Bozzani, Jean Digitale, Lung Vu, Eileen Yam, and Mary Nambao

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Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Nrupa Jani, Lung Vu, Lynnette Kay, Kassahun Habtamu, and Sam Kalibala

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Reducing provider-held stigma and improving young client satisfaction in Bangladesh: Findings from a Link Up evaluation, Population Council

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Relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerability of female sex workers in southern India, Sangram Kishor Patel, Parimi Prabhakar, Anrudh K. Jain, Niranjan Saggurti, and Rajatashuvra Adhikary

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Relationship between mobility, violence and major depression among female sex workers: A cross-sectional study in southern India, Sangram Kishor Patel, Deepika Ganju, Parimi Prabhakar, and Rajatashuvra Adhikary

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Relationship between socio demographic characteristics and HIV indicators among women in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia and Malawi based on DHS data, Sam Kalibala, Erick Oweya, and Lyson Phiri

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Reliability and validity of an interviewer-administered adaptation of the Youth Self-Report for mental health screening of vulnerable young people in Ethiopia, Scott Geibel, Kassahun Habtamu, Gebeyehu Mekonnen, Nrupa Jani, Lynnette Kay, Julyata Shibru, Lake Bedilu, and Sam Kalibala

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Results from a rapid national assessment of services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Côte d’Ivoire, S. Adam Granato, Stephen S. Gloyd, Julia Robinson, Serge A. Dali, Irma Ahoba, David Aka, Seydou Kouyate, Doroux A. Billy, Sam Kalibala, and Ahoua Kone

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Retrospective review of task-shifting community-based programs supporting ARV treatment and retention in Uganda, Sam Kalibala, Jerry Okal, Brady Zieman, Nrupa Jani, Lung Vu, Josephine Birungi, Stephen Okoboi, Jonathan Wangisi, Christine Nabiryo, Joanne Lyavala Okullu, Michael Etukoit, Lydia Buzaalirwa, Augustine Lubanga, Paul Kiyingi, Jonathan Ikapule, Syson Nakyeyune, Stephen Nakibinge, Penninah Lutung, Samuel Waliggo, Joseph Nsamba, Yashien Wamanga, Joseph Kamya, Robina Sentongo, and Robert Yiga

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Sexual and reproductive health and rights needs of young men who live in the streets in Dhaka City: A Link Up exploratory study, Population Council

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Sexual and reproductive health knowledge, attitudes, and practices among early adolescents and young adults in Uganda: Findings from a Link Up exploratory study, Population Council

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Strengthening community-based services for children and families affected by HIV: An evaluation of the Zambia Family program, Project SOAR

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Uptake of condoms and lubricants remains low among Nigerian men who have sex with men despite availability and counseling at trusted community health centers, Trevor A. Crowell, Stefan Baral, Babajide Keshinro, Rebecca G. Nowak, Sheree Schwartz, Sylvia Adebajo, William A. Blattner, Manhattan E. Charurat, and Julie Ake

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Using peers to improve sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people living with HIV in Uganda: Findings from a Link Up evaluation, Population Council

Submissions from 2015

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Addressing mental health disorders and HIV vulnerability of marginalized adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Nrupa Jani, Lung Vu, Sam Kalibala, Gebeyehu Mekonnen, and Kay Lynn

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A model for translating ethnography and theory into culturally constructed clinical practices, Bonnie K. Nastasi, Jean J. Schensul, Stephen L. Schensul, Abdelwahed Mekki-Berrada, Pertti J. Pelto, Shubhada Maitra, Ravi K. Verma, and Niranjan Saggurti

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An assessment of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS among slum and non-slum populations in Delhi, India, Pravin K. Jha, Padum Narayan, Saritha Nair, Deepika Ganju, Damodar Sahu, and Arvind Pandey

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Annotated bibliography of Nigerian youth-focused HIV and sexual and reproductive health project publications (grey literature), Population Council

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Annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed literature related to the sexual and reproductive health of young people in Nigeria (2000-2014), Population Council

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Are truckers being over stigmatized as HIV carriers in India? Evidences from behavioral and biological cross-sectional surveys among clients of female sex workers, Damodar Sahu, Sowmya Ramesh, Ram Manohar Mishra, K. Srikanth Reddy, Reena Bharadwaj, Niranjan Saggurti, Arvind Pandey, Mandar Mainkar, and Bitra George

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ARV-based HIV prevention for women: State of the science and considerations for implementation in Zimbabwe. Report from a provider workshop, Population Council

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A secondary analysis of retention across the PMTCT cascade in selected countries: Rwanda, Malawi, Kenya, and Swaziland, Godfrey Woelk, Aida Y. Berhan, Kwashie Kudiabor, Martha Mukaminega, John On'gech, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Caspian Chouraya, David Kimosop, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Mafayo Phiri, and Heather Hoffman

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Association between general media exposure and sexual behavior among mobile female sex workers in India, Varun Sharma, Niranjan Saggurti, and Shalini Bharat

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Association between system reach and exposure to interventions and characteristics of mobile female sex workers in four high HIV prevalence states in India, Varun Sharma, Niranjan Saggurti, and Shalini Bharat

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Barriers to use contraceptive methods among rural young married couples in Maharashtra, India: Qualitative findings, Mohan Ghule, Anita Raj, Prajakta Palaye, Anindita Dasgupta, Saritha Nair, Niranjan Saggurti, Madhusudana Battala, and Balaiah Donta

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Burundi program implementation workshop, 3–5 June 2014: Link Up meeting report, Population Council and Alliance Burundaise contre le Sida

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Causes of death among HIV-infected adults registered in selected anti-retroviral therapy centers in north-eastern India, Chiranjeev Bhattacharjya, Damodar Sahu, Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, and Arvind Pandey

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Changing HIV epidemic in north-eastern India and its relationship with development and programmatic indicators, Chiranjeev Bhattacharjya, Sangram Kishor Patel, Samiran Panda, and Alok Kr. Deb

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Characteristics associated with HIV drug resistance among women screening for an HIV prevention trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Barbara Mensch, Pamina M. Gorbach, Cliff Kelly, Photini Kiepiela, Kailazarid Gomez, Gita Ramjee, Shayhana Ganesh, Neetha S. Morar, Lydia Soto-Torres, and Urvi M. Parikh

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Contributions of an intensive HIV prevention programme in increasing HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India, Sowmya Ramesh, Purnima Mehrotra, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Correlates of mental depression among female sex workers in southern India, Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, Saroj Pachauri, and Parimi Prabhakar

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Differences in sexual practices, sexual behavior and HIV risk profile between adolescents and young persons in rural and urban Nigeria, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Sylvia Adebajo, Adedayo Adeyemi, and Kayode Micheal Ogungbemi

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Disclosure of pharmacokinetic drug results to understand nonadherence, Ariane van der Straten, Elizabeth T. Montgomery, Petina Musara, Juliane Etima, Sarita Naidoo, Nicole Laborde, Miriam Hartmann, Lisa Levy, Thola Bennie, Helen Cheng, Jeanna Piper, Cynthia I. Grossman, Jeanne Marrazzo, and Barbara Mensch

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Do clinical decision-support reminders for medical providers improve isoniazid prescription rates among HIV-positive adults?, Eric P. Green, Caricia Catalani, Aggrey Keny, Lameck Diero, Charity Ndwiga, Dennis Israelski, and Paul Biondich

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Effectiveness of behavior change communications for reducing transmission risks among people living with HIV in 6 countries in Central America, Lung Vu, Benjamin Nieto-Andrade, Allison DiVincenzo, Jorge Rivas, Jennifer Wheeler, and Sussy Lungo