The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2012

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Assessing and improving self-reporting of male circumcision in Zambia and Swaziland, Paul C. Hewett, Nicole Haberland, Barbara Mensch, and Louis Apicella

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Assessment of unsafe injection practices and sexual behaviors among male injecting drug users in two urban cities of India using respondent driven sampling, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Aruna Bhattacharya, Dean Lewis, Yumnam Shashikumar Singh, and Louis Apicella

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Changing epidemiology of HIV in Mumbai: An application of the Asian epidemic model, Ram Manohar Mishra, Madhulika Dube, Damodar Sahu, Niranjan Saggurti, and Arvind Pandey

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Community advocacy groups as a means to address the social environment of female sex workers: A case study in Andhra Pradesh, India, Swarup Punyam, Renuka Somanatha Pullikalu, Ram Manohar Mishra, Prashanth Sandri, Balakrishna Prasad Mutupuru, Suresh Babu Kokku, and Parimi Prabhakar

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Community norms about youth condom use in Western Kenya: Is transition occurring?, Paula Tavrow, Eunice N. Muthengi, Albert Obbuyi, and Vidalyne Omollo

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Disclosure of HIV status to sex partners among HIV-infected men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, Lung Vu, Katherine Andrinopoulos, Catherine Mathews, Mickey Chopra, Carl Kendall, and Thomas P. Eisele

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Examining dimensions of vulnerability among children in Uganda, Sam Kalibala, Katie D. Schenk, Deborah Weiss, and Lynne Elson

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Getting real with youth-friendly services in Africa: Report of a satellite session at the XIX International AIDS Conference, Population Council

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HIV-related conspiracy beliefs and its relationships with HIV testing and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa, Waimar Tun, Scott E. Kellerman, Senkhu Maimane, Zukiswa Fipaza, Meredith Sheehy, Lung Vu, and Dawie Nel

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HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers using cell phone for client solicitation in India, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Niranjan Saggurti, Shiva S. Halli, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Hormonal contraception and the risk of HIV acquisition among women in South Africa, Charles S. Morrison, Stephanie Skoler-Karpoff, Cynthia Kwok, Pai-lien Chen, Janneke Van De Wijgert, Marlena Gehret Plagianos, Smruti Patel, Khatija Ahmed, Gita Ramjee, Barbara Friedland, and Pekka Lahteenmaki

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Household survey to evaluate the Zambia-led Prevention Initiative: Baseline report, Zambia-led Prevention Initiative

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How effective is community mobilisation in HIV prevention among highly diverse sex workers in urban settings? The Aastha intervention experience in Mumbai and Thane districts, India, Sanjeev Singh Gaikwad, Amrita Bhende, Gaurav Nidhi, Niranjan Saggurti, and Virupax Ranebennur

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Indicators of mobility, socio-economic vulnerabilities and HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers in India, Niranjan Saggurti, Anrudh K. Jain, Mary Philip Sebastian, Rajendra Singh, Hanimi Reddy Modugu, Shiva S. Halli, and Ravi K. Verma

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Levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men in Pretoria, South Africa, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Meredith Sheehy, and Dawie Nel

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Male migration/mobility and HIV among married couples: Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data from India, Niranjan Saggurti, Saritha Nair, Alankar Malviya, Michele R. Decker, Jay G. Silverman, and Anita Raj

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Male out-migration: A factor for the spread of HIV infection among married men and women in rural India, Niranjan Saggurti, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Shrutika Sabarwal, Subash Ghosh, and Aradhana Johri

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MARPs sensitization: A diversity training guide for health care providers in Nigeria, Enhancing Nigeria's HIV/AIDS Response (ENR) Programme

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Meaningful involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda through linkages between network groups and health facilities: An evaluation study, Young-Mi Kim, Sam Kalibala, Stella Neema, John Lukwago, and Deborah Weiss

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Mobilising community collectivisation among female sex workers to promote STI service utilisation from the government healthcare system in Andhra Pradesh, India, Parimi Prabhakar, Ram Manohar Mishra, Saroj Tucker, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Navigating the swampy lowland: A framework for evaluating the effect of community mobilisation in female sex workers in Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, Christine Galavotti, Tisha Wheeler, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, Niranjan Saggurti, Pradeep Narayanan, Usha Kiran, and Gina Dallabetta

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Nonclinical development needs and regulatory requirements for multipurpose prevention technologies: A primer, Joseph W. Romano, Martha Brady, and Judy Manning

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On the cutting edge: Improving the informed consent process for adolescents in Zambia undergoing male circumcision for HIV prevention, Katie D. Schenk, Barbara Friedland, Louis Apicella, Meredith Sheehy, Kelvin Munjile, and Paul C. Hewett

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Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, Waimar Tun, Vartika Sharma, Mary Philip Sebastian, Ira Madan, Amita Yadav, Meredith Sheehy, Dean Lewis, Ibou Thior, and Avina Sarna

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Prevalence of internalized homophobia and HIV associated risks among men who have sex with men in Nigeria, Sylvia Adebajo, George I. Eluwa, Dan Allman, Ted Myers, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India, Sowmya Ramesh, Deepika Ganju, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Ram Manohar Mishra, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Same-sex sexual behavior of men in Kenya: Implications for HIV prevention, programs, and policy, Scott Geibel

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Sexual behavior of HIV-positive adults not accessing HIV treatment in Mombasa, Kenya: Defining their prevention needs, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Melissa Pickett, Matthew F. Chersich, Jerry Okal, Scott Geibel, Nzioki Kingola, and Marleen Temmerman

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Sexual risk behaviors and HIV among female sex workers in Nigeria, George I. Eluwa, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Sylvia Adebajo, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, Aderemi Azeez, and Jennifer Anyanti

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Sex with stitches: Assessing the resumption of sexual activity during the postcircumcision wound-healing period, Paul C. Hewett, Timothy B. Hallett, Barbara Mensch, Kumbutso Dzekedzeke, Susan Zimba-Tembo, Geoffrey P. Garnett, and Petra E. Todd

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Shaping the operations research agenda for antiretroviral-based prevention products for women: Gels and rings, Martha Brady and C. Elizabeth McGrory

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The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India, Ram Manohar Mishra, Madhulika Dube, Niranjan Saggurti, Arvind Pandey, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, and Sowmya Ramesh

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The experiences of men engaged in transactional sex with other men in urban Nigeria—A size estimation and qualitative study, Population Council

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The extent and nature of fluidity in typologies of female sex work in southern India: Implications for HIV prevention programs, Anrudh K. Jain and Niranjan Saggurti

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The impact of peer outreach on HIV knowledge and prevention behaviours of male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, Scott Geibel, Nzioki King'ola, Marleen Temmerman, and Stanley Luchters

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The (mis)reporting of male circumcision status among men and women in Zambia and Swaziland: A randomized evaluation of interview methods, Paul C. Hewett, Nicole Haberland, Louis Apicella, and Barbara S. Mensch

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Understanding out-migration among female sex workers in South India, Pradeep Banandur, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Lisa E. Manhart, Raluca Buzdugan, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Shajy Isac, Shiva S. Halli, Reynold G. Washington, Stephen Moses, and James F. Blanchard

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Understanding the association between injecting and sexual risk behaviors of injecting drug users in Manipur and Nagaland, India, Khrieketou Suoho, Chumben Humtsoe, Niranjan Saggurti, Shrutika Sabarwal, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, and Michelle Kermode

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Using capture-recapture methodology for enumerating most-at-risk populations (MARPs), Population Council

Submissions from 2011

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Acceptability of Carraguard vaginal microbicide gel among HIV-infected women in Chiang Rai, Thailand, Sara J. Whitehead, Catherine A. McLean, Supaporn Chaikummao, Sarah Braunstein, Wat Utaivoravit, Janneke van de Wijgert, Philip A. Mock, Taweesap Siraprapasiri, Barbara Friedland, Peter H. Kilmarx, and Lauri Markowitz

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A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India, Kristin M. Kostick, Stephen L. Schensul, Rajendra Singh, Pertti Pelto, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Assessing the reporting of adherence and sexual activity in a simulated microbicide trial in South Africa: An interview mode experiment using a placebo gel, Barbara Mensch, Paul C. Hewett, Sharon Abbott, Johanna Rankin, Sarah A. Littlefield, Khatija Ahmed, Nazira Cassim, Smruti Patel, Gita Ramjee, Thesla Palanee, Stanley J. Mierzwa, and Stephanie Skoler-Karpoff

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Attitudinal and behavioral factors associated with extramarital sex among Nigerian men: Findings from a national survey, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Andrew Karlyn, Sylvia Adebajo, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Barriers to sexual and reproductive health programming for adolescents living with HIV in Uganda, Francis Obare, Harriet Birungi, and Linda Kavuma

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Constructing a critical path for product development, commercialization, and access, Martha Brady

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Correlates of sexual, ethnic, and dual identity: A study of young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men, Lung Vu, Kyung Hee Choi, and Tri Do

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Evaluation of the informed consent process for male circumcision scale-up in Swaziland, Barbara Friedland, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, Meredith Sheehy, and Paul C. Hewett

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Evaluation of the informed consent process for male circumcision scale-up in Zambia, Barbara Friedland, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, Meredith Sheehy, and Paul C. Hewett

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Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India, Suvakanta N. Swain, Niranjan Saggurti, Madhusudana Battala, Ravi K. Verma, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Facilitating regulatory approval of multipurpose prevention technologies for sexual and reproductive health, Martha Brady

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Harsh realities: Reasons for women's involvement in sex work in India, Niranjan Saggurti, Shagun Sabarwal, Ravi K. Verma, Shiva S. Halli, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Heading towards the Safer Highways: An assessment of the Avahan prevention programme among long distance truck drivers in India, Arvind Pandey, Ram Manohar Mishra, Damodar Sahu, Sudhir K. Benara, Uttpal Sengupta, Ramesh S. Paranjape, Gautam Abhishek, Satya R. Lenka, and Rajatashuvra Adhikary

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'Health regains but livelihoods lag': Findings from a study with people on ART in Zambia and Kenya, Fiona Samuels and Naomi Rutenberg

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HIV integrated biological and behavioural surveillance survey (IBBSS) 2010, Federal Ministry of Health

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HIV transmission among married men and women in districts with high out-migration in India: Study brief, Niranjan Saggurti, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Suvakanta N. Swain, Madhusudana Battala, Umesh Chawla, and Alka Narang

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"Knowing myself first": Feasibility of self-testing among health workers in Kenya, Sam Kalibala, Waimar Tun, William Muraah, Peter Cherutich, Erick Oweya, and Patricia Oluoch

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Male circumcision for HIV prevention: Current evidence and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa, Richard G. Wamai, Brian J. Morris, Stefan A. Bailis, David Sokal, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Ross Appleton, Nelson Sewankambo, David A. Cooper, John Bongaarts, Guy De Bruyn, Alex D. Wodak, and Joya Banerjee

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Male migration and risky sexual behavior in rural India: Is the place of origin critical for HIV prevention programs?, Niranjan Saggurti, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Suvakanta N. Swain, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Migration and HIV in India: Study of select districts, Niranjan Saggurti, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Suvakanta N. Swain, Madhusudana Battala, Alka Narang, and Umesh Chawla

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Motivations for entry into sex work and HIV risk among mobile female sex workers in India, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Shiva S. Halli, Suvakanta N. Swain, Rajendra Singh, Hanimi Reddy Modugu, Saumya RamaRao, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and injecting drug users and validation of audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI) technique in Abuja, Lagos, and Ibadan, Nigeria: Report fact sheet, Enhancing Nigeria's HIV/AIDS Response (ENR) Programme

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Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and injecting drug users and validation of audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI) technique in Abuja, Lagos, and Ibadan, Nigeria: Technical report, Enhancing Nigeria's HIV/AIDS Response (ENR) Programme

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Relationship between reported prior condom use and current self-perceived risk of acquiring HIV among mobile female sex workers in southern India, Anrudh K. Jain, Niranjan Saggurti, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Mary Philip Sebastian, Hanimi Modugu, Shiva S. Halli, and Ravi K. Verma

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Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India, Jay G. Silverman, Anita Raj, Debbie M. Cheng, Michele R. Decker, Sharon Coleman, Carly Bridden, Manoj Pardeshi, Niranjan Saggurti, and Jeffrey H. Samet

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Sexual and physical violence against female sex workers in Kenya: A qualitative enquiry, Jerry Okal, Matthew F. Chersich, Sharon Tsui, Elizabeth Sutherland, Marleen Temmerman, and Stanley Luchters

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Situation assessment of the HIV response among young people in Zambia, Sam Kalibala and Drosin Mulenga

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The interrelationship of men's self-reports of sexual risk behavior and symptoms and laboratory-confirmed STI-status in India, Niranjan Saggurti, Stephen L. Schensul, and Ravi K. Verma

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Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India, Anita Raj, Niranjan Saggurti, Debbie M. Cheng, Anindita Dasgupta, Carly Bridden, Manojkumar Pradeshi, and Jeffrey H. Samet

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Use of AUDIT, and measures of drinking frequency and patterns to detect associations between alcohol and sexual behaviour in male sex workers in Kenya, Stanley Luchters, Scott Geibel, Masila Syengo, Daniel Lango, Nzioki King'Ola, Marleen Temmerman, and Matthew F. Chersich

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What regulatory guidance exists for multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs)? A review of key guidance documents and their applicability to MPTs, Martha Brady and Heeyoung Park

Submissions from 2010

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Access to antiretroviral therapy for adults and children with HIV infection in developing countries: Horizons studies, 2002–2008, Avina Sarna and Scott E. Kellerman

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Addressing gender dynamics and engaging men in HIV programs: Lessons learned from Horizons research, Julie Pulerwitz, Annie P. Michaelis, Ravi K. Verma, and Ellen Weiss

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Alcohol and sexual risk behavior among migrant female sex workers and male workers in districts with high in-migration from four high HIV prevalence states in India, Ravi K. Verma, Niranjan Saggurti, Ajay Kumar Singh, and Suvakanta N. Swain

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Alcohol use and sex risk behaviors among HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India, Jeffrey H. Samet, Christine A. Pace, Debbie M. Cheng, Sharon Coleman, Carly Bridden, Manoj Pardesi, Niranjan Saggurti, and Anita Raj

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Alcohol use, sexual risk behavior and STIs among married men in Mumbai, India, Niranjan Saggurti, Stephen L. Schensul, and Rajendra Singh

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Community interventions supporting children affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: A review to derive evidence-based principles for programming, Katie D. Schenk and Annie P. Michaelis

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Community-level HIV/STI interventions and their impact on alcohol use in urban poor populations in India, Stephen L. Schensul, Niranjan Saggurti, Joseph A. Burleson, and Rajendra Singh

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Correlates of grief among older adults caring for children and grandchildren as a consequence of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, Hermien Boon, Robert A.C. Ruiter, Shegs James, Bart van den Borne, Eka Esu-Williams, and Priscilla Reddy

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Expanded safety and acceptability of the candidate vaginal microbicide Carraguard® in South Africa, Lydia Altini, Kelly Blanchard, Nicol Coetzee, Alana de Kock, Christopher J. Elias, Charlotte Ellertson, Barbara Friedland, Anwar Hoosen, Heidi E. Jones, Peter H. Kilmarx, Mabitso Marumo, C. Elizabeth McGrory, Constance Monedi, Gugulethu Ndlovu, Bels Nkompala, Annalie Pistorius, Gita Ramjee, Mohlatlego Sebola, Annik Sorhaindo, Abigail Norris Turner, Kathryn Tweedy, Janneke van de Wijgert, Manuela M. Williams, and Beverly Winikoff

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Explaining perceived ability among older people to provide care as a result of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, Hermien Boon, Shegs James, Robert A.C. Ruiter, Bart van den Borne, Eka Esu-Williams, and Priscilla Reddy

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Factors affecting enrolment of PLHIV into ART services in India, Avina Sarna, Damodar Bachani, Mary Philip Sebastian, Ruchi Sogarwal, and Madhusudana Battala

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High-risk sex among mobile female sex workers in the context of jatras (religious festivals) in Karnataka, India, Shiva S. Halli, Raluca Buzdugan, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Anrudh K. Jain, Ravi K. Verma, and Niranjan Saggurti

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HIV genital shedding and safety of Carraguard use by HIV-infected women: A crossover trial in Thailand, Catherine A. McLean, Janneke van de Wijgert, Heidi E. Jones, John M. Karon, Janet M. McNicholl, Sara J. Whitehead, Sarah Braunstein, Jullapong Achalapong, Supaporn Chaikummao, Jordan W. Tappero, Lauri Markowitz, and Peter H. Kilmarx

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Horizons: Looking back, moving forward, Naomi Rutenberg and Deborah Weiss

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Implementation of clinic-based modified-directly observed therapy (m-DOT) for ART: Experiences in Mombasa, Kenya, Paul Munyao, Stanley Luchters, Matthew F. Chersich, Susan Kaai, Scott Geibel, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Marleen Temmerman, Naomi Rutenberg, and Avina Sarna

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Implementing programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-constrained settings: Horizon studies, 1999–2007, Carolyn Baek and Naomi Rutenberg

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Improving the lives of vulnerable children: Implications of Horizons research among orphans and other children affected by AIDS, Katie D. Schenk, Annie P. Michaelis, Tobey Nelson Sapiano, Lisanne Brown, and Ellen Weiss

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Inverse probability weighting in STI/HIV prevention research: Methods for evaluating social and community interventions, Sheri A. Lippman, Starley B. Shade, and Alan E. Hubbard

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Looking back, moving forward: Access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV infected adults and children in developing countries: Horizons Studies, 2002 to 2008, Avina Sarna and Scott E. Kellerman

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Looking back, moving forward: Implementing PMTCT programs in resource-constrained settings, Horizons studies 1999 to 2007, Carolyn Baek and Naomi Rutenberg

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Looking back, moving forward: Improving the lives of orphans and other children affected by AIDS, Horizons studies 1998 to 2007, Katie D. Schenk, Annie P. Michaelis, Tobey C. Nelson, Lisanne Brown, and Ellen Weiss

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Looking back, moving forward: Promoting gender equity to fight HIV, Horizons studies 1999 to 2007, Julie Pulerwitz, Annie P. Michaelis, and Ellen Weiss

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Looking back, moving forward: Reducing HIV-related stigma, Horizons studies 2000 to 2007, Julie Pulerwitz, Annie P. Michaelis, Ellen Weiss, Lisanne Brown, and Vaishali Sharma Mahendra

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Looking back, moving forward: Understanding the HIV risk and sexual health needs of men who have sex with men, Horizons studies 2001 to 2008, Scott Geibel, Waimar Tun, Placide Tapsoba, and Scott E. Kellerman

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Monitoring and Evaluation of the Emergency Plan Progress (MEEPP): End-of-project evaluation, Sam Kalibala

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Nonresponse in repeat population-based voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in rural Malawi, Francis Obare Onyango

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PEPFAR special initiative on sexual and gender-based violence: Baseline report, Lynne Elson and Jill Keesbury

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Perceived stigma among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment: A prospective randomised trial comparing an m-DOT strategy with standard-of-care in Kenya, Susan Kaai, Sandra Bullock, Avina Sarna, Scott Geibel, Naomi Rutenberg, Matthew F. Chersich, Stanley Luchters, Paul Munyao, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, and Marleen Temmerman

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Prevention with positives: How do we reach them in the community?, Avina Sarna, Jerry Okal, Stanley Luchters, Nzioki King'ola, and Scott Geibel

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Protecting hope: Situation analysis of vulnerable children in Uganda 2009, Sam Kalibala and Lynne Elson