The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2014

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Policy and programme considerations for ARV-based prevention for women: Insights from key opinion leaders in Zimbabwe about tenofovir gel, Samukeliso Dube, Barbara Friedland, Saiqa Mullick, Martha Brady, and C. Elizabeth McGrory

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Pretreatment loss-to-follow-up after HIV diagnosis from 27 counseling and testing centers across India: Findings from a cohort study, Avina Sarna, Mary Philip Sebastian, Damodar Bachani, Ruchi Sogarwal, and Madhusudana Battala

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Program and policy considerations for tenofovir gel in India: An overview, Population Council

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Provider alerts and reminders to improve tuberculosis care among people living with HIV in Kenya: TB Tech formative report, Caricia Catalani, Eric P. Green, Lameck Diero, Jane Carter, Martin Were, Dennis Israelski, Adrian Gardner, Charity Ndwiga, and Paul Biondich

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Reconceptualizing the HIV epidemiology and prevention needs of female sex workers (FSW) in Swaziland, Stefan Baral, Sosthenes Ketende, Jessie L. Green, Ping-An Chen, Ashley Grosso, Bheki Sithole, Cebisile Ntshangase, Eileen Yam, Deanna Kerrigan, Caitlin E. Kennedy, and Darrin Adams

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Retention of adolescents living with HIV in care, treatment, and support programs in Uganda, Livingstone Ssali, Sam Kalibala, Josephine Birungi, Aggrey Egessa, Jonathan Wangisi, Joanne Lyavala Okullu, Celestin Bakanda, Stephen Okoboi, and Francis Obare

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Role of a community-to-community learning strategy in the institutionalization of community mobilization among female sex workers in India, Santhosh Sadhu, Archana Rao Manukonda, Anthony Reddy Yeruva, Sangram Kishor Patel, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Setting the stage for ARV-based prevention for women: A snapshot of the Zimbabwean context, Population Council

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Socio-demographic factors associated with uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among Nigerian youth, Ayodeji Oginni, Otibho Obianwu, and Sylvia Adebajo

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Socioeconomic and behavioral factors influencing choice, adherence and success of microbicide formulations, Elizabeth E. Tolley, Barbara Friedland, Mitzy Gafos, K. Rivet Amico, Lut Van Damme, Cynthia Woodsong, Kathleen M. MacQueen, Leila Mansoor, and Sheena McCormack

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Tackling stigma: Fundamental to an AIDS-free future, Julie Pulerwitz and John Bongaarts

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Tenofovir gel for HIV prevention for women: Perspectives of key opinion leaders from India, Abhijit Prabhughate, Avina Sarna, and Martha Brady

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The effect of mobility on sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men in southern India, Sowmya Ramesh, Purnima Mehrotra, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Deepika Ganju, Karikalan Nagarajan, and Niranjan Saggurti

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The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): Using social science to inform PrEP interventions among female sex workers, Jennifer Syvertsen, Angela M. Robertson Bazzi, Andrew Scheibe, Sylvia Adebajo, Stephanie A. Strathdee, and Wendee M. Wechsberg

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What HIV programs work for adolescent girls?, Karen Hardee, Jill Gay, Melanie Croce-Galis, and Nana Ama Afari-Dwamena

Submissions from 2013

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Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its effect on survival of HIV-infected individuals in Jharkhand, India, Sandeep Rai, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Subhashish Sircar, Pinnamaneni Yujwal Raj, Srinivasan Venkatesh, Mohammed Shaukat, and Bharat Bhusan Rewari

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Alcohol and condom use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative female sex workers in Nagaland, India, Amenia Nuken, Michelle Kermode, Niranjan Saggurti, Greg Armstrong, and Gajendra Kumar Medhi

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An evaluation of methods to improve the reporting of adherence in a placebo gel trial in Andhra Pradesh, India, Sharon Abbott, Barbara Friedland, Avina Sarna, Lauren L. Katzen, Ulrike Rawiel, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, C.S. Shalini, Waimar Tun, Christine A. Kelly, Suniti Solomon, and Barbara Mensch

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A profile on HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among injecting drug users in Nigeria: Should we be alarmed?, George I. Eluwa, Stephanie A. Strathdee, Samson B. Adebayo, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, and Sylvia Adebajo

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Are female sex workers able to negotiate condom use with male clients? The case of mobile FSWs in four high HIV prevalence states of India, Shalini Bharat, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Suchismita Roy, and Niranjan Saggurti

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A toolkit for developing bilingual lexicons for international HIV prevention clinical trials, Catalina B. Ramirez, Natasha Mack, and Barbara Friedland

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Characteristics of female sex workers in southern India willing and unwilling to participate in a placebo gel trial, Barbara Mensch, Barbara Friedland, Sharon Abbott, Lauren L. Katzen, Waimar Tun, Christine A. Kelly, Avina Sarna, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, and Suniti Solomon

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Community collectivization and its association with consistent condom use and STI treatment-seeking behaviors among female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men/transgenders in Andhra Pradesh, India, Niranjan Saggurti, Ram Manohar Mishra, Laxminarayana Proddutoor, Saroj Tucker, Dolly Kovvali, Parimi Prabhakar, and Tisha Wheeler

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Comparing estimates of multiple and concurrent partnerships across population based surveys: Implications for combination HIV prevention, Martina Morris, Lung Vu, Ayn Leslie-Cook, Eniko Akom, Aloo Stephen, and Donna Sherard

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Condoms and condiments: Compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa, Scott Geibel

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Degree and correlates of sexual mixing in female sex workers in Karnataka, India, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Catherine M. Lowndes, Kaveri Gurav, Banadakoppa M. Ramesh, Stephen Moses, Reynold G. Washington, and Michel Alary

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Documentation of HIV prevention research and programmatic learnings from India—Selected peer-reviewed journal publications from the Knowledge Network Project (Volume 1), Population Council

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Effectiveness of a community-based positive prevention intervention for people living with HIV who are not receiving antiretroviral treatment: A prospective cohort study, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Eustasius Musenge, Jerry Okal, Matthew F. Chersich, Waimar Tun, Sabine Mall, Nzioki King'ola, and Sam Kalibala

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Effect of computer-assisted interviewing on self-reported sexual behavior data in a microbicide clinical trial, Pamina M. Gorbach, Barbara Mensch, Marla Husnik, Astou Coly, Benoit R. Masse, Bonus Makanani, Chiwawa Nkhoma, Lameck Chinula, Tchangani Tembo, Stanley J. Mierzwa, Kimberly Reynolds, Stacey Hurst, Anne S. Coletti, and Andrew Forsyth

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Effects of a health care provider intervention in reduction of sexual risk and related outcomes in economically marginal communities in Mumbai, India, Niranjan Saggurti, Stephen L. Schensul, Bonnie K. Nastasi, Rajendra Singh, Joseph A. Burleson, and Ravi K. Verma

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Estimates of the size of key populations at risk for HIV infection: Men who have sex with men, female sex workers and injecting drug users in Nairobi, Kenya, Jerry Okal, Scott Geibel, Nicholas Muraguri, Helgar Musyoki, Waimar Tun, Dita Broz, David Kuria, Andrea Kim, Tom Oluoch, and H. Fisher Raymond

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Estimating the number of male sex workers with the capture-recapture technique in Nigeria, Sylvia Adebajo, George I. Eluwa, Jack Tocco, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, Lolade Abiodun, Oliver Anene, D.O. Akpona, Andrew Karlyn, and Scott E. Kellerman

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Evaluating the impact of three HIV counselling and testing strategies on male most-at-risk population in Nigeria: A segmented regression analysis, George I. Eluwa, Sylvia Adebajo, Jean Njab, Ayodeji Oginni, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Evaluating the McDonald's business model for HIV prevention among truckers to improve program coverage and service utilization in India, 2004–2010, Vasudha Rao Tirumalasetti, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Sachin Juneja, and Indra Ramayash Singh

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Evaluation of 3 approaches for assessing adherence to vaginal gel application in clinical trials, Ariane van der Straten, Helen Cheng, Barbara Mensch, Barbara Friedland, Lauren L. Katzen, Sarah A. Littlefield, Niall Buckley, Lilia Espinoza, Marla J. Keller, Betsy C. Herold, and Mark H. Einstein

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Factors associated with risky sexual practices among female sex workers in Karnataka, India, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Catherine M. Lowndes, Sanjay Kumar Mohanty, Kaveri Gurav, Banadakoppa M. Ramesh, Stephen Moses, Reynold G. Washington, and Michel Alary

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Female sex workers, male circumcision and HIV: A qualitative study of their understanding, experience, and HIV risk in Zambia, Sharon Abbott, Nicole Haberland, Drosin Mulenga, and Paul C. Hewett

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From problem-solving to research utilization: How operations research and program evaluation can make programs better, Karen Foreit

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High HIV incidence among male injection drug users in Delhi, India, Waimar Tun, Lopamudra Saraswati, Mary Philip Sebastian, Vartika Sharma, Amita Yadav, Ira Madan, Ibou Thior, and Avina Sarna

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High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: Implications for combination prevention, Lung Vu, Sylvia Adebajo, Waimar Tun, Meredith Sheehy, Andrew Karlyn, Jean Njab, Aderemi Azeez, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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High levels of unprotected anal intercourse and never testing for HIV among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: Evidence from a cross-sectional survey for the need for innovative approaches to HIV prevention, Lung Vu, Katherine Andrinopoulos, Waimar Tun, and Sylvia Adebajo

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High uptake of HIV testing in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, India: Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Vartika Sharma, Mary Philip Sebastian, Ira Madan, Amita Yadav, Meredith Sheehy, Dean Lewis, and Ibou Thior

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HIVCore operations research workshop summary report, Nrupa Jani

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How informed are clients who consent? A mixed-method evaluation of comprehension among clients of male circumcision services in Zambia and Swaziland, Barbara Friedland, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, Meredith Sheehy, and Paul C. Hewett

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Impact of an HIV prevention intervention on condom use among long distance truckers in India, Sachin Juneja, Vasudha Rao Tirumalasetti, Ram Manohar Mishra, Shekhar Sethu, and Indra Ramayash Singh

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Implementing incentive-based HIV interventions in Zambia: The COMPACT model, Sam Kalibala, Waimar Tun, Chabu Kangale, Jill Keesbury, Ray Handema, and Mwaka Monze

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Lessons from reproductive health to inform multipurpose prevention technologies: Don't reinvent the wheel, Martha Brady and Judy Manning

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Local social support mitigates depression among women contending with spousal violence and husband’s risky drinking in Mumbai slum communities, Anindita Dasgupta, Madhusudana Battala, Niranjan Saggurti, Saritha Nair, Dattaram D. Naik, Jay G. Silverman, Balaiah Donta, and Anita Raj

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Lost in translation: Assessing effectiveness of focus group questioning techniques to develop improved translation of terminology used in HIV prevention clinical trials, Natasha Mack, Catalina B. Ramirez, Barbara Friedland, and Soori Nnko

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Male migrants' non-spousal sexual partnerships in the place of origin: An in-depth investigation in two rural settings of India, Deepika Ganju, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: Evidence from Mombasa, Kenya, Priya Mannava, Scott Geibel, Nzioki King'ola, Marleen Temmerman, and Stanley Luchters

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Microbicide clinical trial adherence: Insights for introduction, Cynthia Woodsong, Kathleen M. MacQueen, K. Rivet Amico, Barbara Friedland, Mitzy Gafos, Leila Mansoor, Elizabeth E. Tolley, and Sheena McCormack

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Motivations for entering volunteer service and factors affecting productivity: A mixed method survey of STEPS-OVC volunteer HIV caregivers in Zambia, Jessica Price, Tina Moyo, Stephanie Topp, Drosin Mulenga, Mardieh Dennis, and Mathew Ngunga

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Population-based prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus, HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in male injection drug users in Lagos, Nigeria, Waimar Tun, Lung Vu, Sylvia Adebajo, Lolade Abiodun, Meredith Sheehy, Andrew Karlyn, Jean Njab, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, B. Kawu Issa, and Omokhudu Idogho

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Prevalence and correlates of non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of female sex workers in India, Niranjan Saggurti, Anita Raj, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Debbie M. Cheng, Sharon Coleman, Carly Bridden, Madhusudana Battala, Jay G. Silverman, Manoj Pardeshi, and Jeffrey H. Samet

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Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among women screening for HIV prevention trials in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (MTN-009), Urvi M. Parikh, Photini Kiepiela, Shayhana Ganesh, Kailazarid Gomez, Stephanie Horn, Krista Eskay, Cliff Kelly, Barbara Mensch, Pamina M. Gorbach, Lydia Soto-Torres, Gita Ramjee, John W. Mellors, and IPTc Taskforce

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Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C, and co-infection in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, Lopamudra Saraswati, Mary Philip Sebastian, Avina Sarna, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Dean Lewis, Ibou Thior, and Waimar Tun

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Randomized controlled trial to test the RHANI wives HIV intervention for women in India at risk for HIV from husbands, Anita Raj, Niranjan Saggurti, Madhusudana Battala, Saritha Nair, Anindita Dasgupta, Dattaram D. Naik, Daniela Abramovitz, Jay G. Silverman, and Balaiah Donta

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Reproductive health concerns of women contending with spousal violence and husband's alcohol use in a Mumbai slum community, Saritha Nair, Anita Raj, Niranjan Saggurti, Dattaram D. Naik, Anindita Dasgupta, and Balaiah Donta

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Role of community group exposure in reducing sexually transmitted infection-related risk among female sex workers in India, Diwakar Yadov, Shreena Ramanathan, Prabuddhagopal Goswami, Lakshmi Ramakrishnan, Niranjan Saggurti, Shrabanti Sen, Bitra George, and Ramesh S. Paranjape

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Self-report of STI symptoms, inconsistent condom use and condom non-use are poor predictors of STI prevalence among men who have sex with men, Karikalan Nagarajan, Sheela Godbole, Lakshmi Ramakrishnan, Mandar Mainkar, Sowmya Ramesh, Deepika Ganju, and Ramesh S. Paranjape

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Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive health morbidity in a cohort of female sex workers screened for a microbicide feasibility study in Nellore, India, Avina Sarna, Barbara Friedland, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Lauren L. Katzen, Waimar Tun, Sharon Abbott, Ulrike Rawiel, Christine A. Kelly, C.S. Shalini, Suniti Solomon, and Barbara Mensch

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Situation analysis of programs to meet the HIV prevention, care, and treatment needs of persons with disabilities in Ghana, Uganda, and Zambia, Waimar Tun, Jerry Okal, Katie D. Schenk, Meredith Sheehy, Emmanuel Kuffour, Selina F. Esantsi, Hilary Asiah, Grimond Moono, Felix Mutale, Rita Kyeremaa, Edson Ngirabakunzi, and Atwijukire Justus

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Strategies for recruiting injection drug users for HIV prevention services in Delhi, India, Waimar Tun, Mary Philip Sebastian, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Samir Souidi, Dean Lewis, Ibou Thior, and Avina Sarna

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The association between noncommercial partnerships and risk of HIV among female sex workers: Evidences from a cross-sectional behavioral and biological survey in southern India, Renuka Somanatha Pullikalu, Ram Manohar Mishra, Niranjan Saggurti, and Parimi Prabhakar

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The Community Mobilization for Preventive Action (COMPACT) project in Zambia: A midline evaluation, Waimar Tun, Chabu Kangale, Scott Geibel, Meredith Sheehy, Ray Handema, and Mwaka Monze

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Use of dual protection among female sex workers in Swaziland, Eileen Yam, Zandile Mnisi, X. Mabuza, Caitlin E. Kennedy, Deanna Kerrigan, Amy Ong Tsui, and Stefan Baral

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Use of the dye stain assay and ultraviolet light test for assessing vaginal insertion of placebo-filled applicators before and after sex, Marla J. Keller, Niall Buckley, Lauren L. Katzen, Jennifer Walsh, Barbara Friedland, Sarah A. Littlefield, Juan Lin, Xiaonan Xue, Terri Cornelison, Betsy C. Herold, and Mark H. Einstein

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Violence-related coping, help seeking and health care-based intervention preferences among perinatal women in Mumbai, India, Michele R. Decker, Saritha Nair, Niranjan Saggurti, Bushra Sabri, Meghna Jethva, Anita Raj, Balaiah Donta, and Jay G. Silverman

Submissions from 2012

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A decade of research involving men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: Current knowledge and future directions, Nicholas Muraguri, Marleen Temmerman, and Scott Geibel

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An assessment of individual and institutional research utilization by policy-makers and programme managers at state and national levels in Nigeria, National Agency for the Control of AIDS

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An ethnographic study of injecting drug users and men who have sex with men in selected states in Nigeria, Enhancing Nigeria's HIV/AIDS Response (ENR) Programme

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Assessing and improving self-reporting of male circumcision in Zambia and Swaziland, Paul C. Hewett, Nicole Haberland, Barbara Mensch, and Louis Apicella

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Assessment of unsafe injection practices and sexual behaviors among male injecting drug users in two urban cities of India using respondent driven sampling, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Aruna Bhattacharya, Dean Lewis, Yumnam Shashikumar Singh, and Louis Apicella

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Disclosure of HIV status to sex partners among HIV-infected men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, Lung Vu, Katherine Andrinopoulos, Catherine Mathews, Mickey Chopra, Carl Kendall, and Thomas P. Eisele

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Examining dimensions of vulnerability among children in Uganda, Sam Kalibala, Katie D. Schenk, Deborah Weiss, and Lynne Elson

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Getting real with youth-friendly services in Africa: Report of a satellite session at the XIX International AIDS Conference, Population Council

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HIV-related conspiracy beliefs and its relationships with HIV testing and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa, Waimar Tun, Scott E. Kellerman, Senkhu Maimane, Zukiswa Fipaza, Meredith Sheehy, Lung Vu, and Dawie Nel

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HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers using cell phone for client solicitation in India, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Niranjan Saggurti, Shiva S. Halli, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Hormonal contraception and the risk of HIV acquisition among women in South Africa, Charles S. Morrison, Stephanie Skoler-Karpoff, Cynthia Kwok, Pai-lien Chen, Janneke Van De Wijgert, Marlena Gehret Plagianos, Smruti Patel, Khatija Ahmed, Gita Ramjee, Barbara Friedland, and Pekka Lahteenmaki

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Household survey to evaluate the Zambia-led Prevention Initiative: Baseline report, Zambia-led Prevention Initiative

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Indicators of mobility, socio-economic vulnerabilities and HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers in India, Niranjan Saggurti, Anrudh K. Jain, Mary Philip Sebastian, Rajendra Singh, Hanimi Reddy Modugu, Shiva S. Halli, and Ravi K. Verma

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Levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men in Pretoria, South Africa, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Meredith Sheehy, and Dawie Nel

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MARPs sensitization: A diversity training guide for health care providers in Nigeria, Enhancing Nigeria's HIV/AIDS Response (ENR) Programme

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Meaningful involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda through linkages between network groups and health facilities: An evaluation study, Young-Mi Kim, Sam Kalibala, Stella Neema, John Lukwago, and Deborah Weiss

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Nonclinical development needs and regulatory requirements for multipurpose prevention technologies: A primer, Joseph W. Romano, Martha Brady, and Judy Manning

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On the cutting edge: Improving the informed consent process for adolescents in Zambia undergoing male circumcision for HIV prevention, Katie D. Schenk, Barbara Friedland, Louis Apicella, Meredith Sheehy, Kelvin Munjile, and Paul C. Hewett

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Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, Waimar Tun, Vartika Sharma, Mary Philip Sebastian, Ira Madan, Amita Yadav, Meredith Sheehy, Dean Lewis, Ibou Thior, and Avina Sarna

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Prevalence of internalized homophobia and HIV associated risks among men who have sex with men in Nigeria, Sylvia Adebajo, George I. Eluwa, Dan Allman, Ted Myers, and Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi

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Same-sex sexual behavior of men in Kenya: Implications for HIV prevention, programs, and policy, Scott Geibel

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Sexual behavior of HIV-positive adults not accessing HIV treatment in Mombasa, Kenya: Defining their prevention needs, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Melissa Pickett, Matthew F. Chersich, Jerry Okal, Scott Geibel, Nzioki Kingola, and Marleen Temmerman

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Sexual risk behaviors and HIV among female sex workers in Nigeria, George I. Eluwa, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Sylvia Adebajo, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, Aderemi Azeez, and Jennifer Anyanti

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Shaping the operations research agenda for antiretroviral-based prevention products for women: Gels and rings, Martha Brady and C. Elizabeth McGrory

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The experiences of men engaged in transactional sex with other men in urban Nigeria—A size estimation and qualitative study, Population Council

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The impact of peer outreach on HIV knowledge and prevention behaviours of male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, Scott Geibel, Nzioki King'ola, Marleen Temmerman, and Stanley Luchters

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The (mis)reporting of male circumcision status among men and women in Zambia and Swaziland: A randomized evaluation of interview methods, Paul C. Hewett, Nicole Haberland, Louis Apicella, and Barbara S. Mensch

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Using capture-recapture methodology for enumerating most-at-risk populations (MARPs), Population Council

Submissions from 2011

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Constructing a critical path for product development, commercialization, and access, Martha Brady

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Evaluation of the informed consent process for male circumcision scale-up in Swaziland, Barbara Friedland, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, Meredith Sheehy, and Paul C. Hewett

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Evaluation of the informed consent process for male circumcision scale-up in Zambia, Barbara Friedland, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, Meredith Sheehy, and Paul C. Hewett