The Population Council’s Center for Biomedical Research (CBR) is a vibrant hub of scientific investigation and product development. Our scientists address critical questions in reproductive health and develop innovative products that protect the health and well-being of millions of people worldwide. CBR is located at Rockefeller University in New York City.

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Submissions from 2009

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Cytokines and junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis in the testis: An emerging concept of regulation, Michelle W.M. Li, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Deprival of testicular innervation induces apoptosis of Leydig cells via caspase-8-dependent signaling: A novel survival pathway revealed, Yong-Guang Gong, Yi-Qiu Wang, Min Gu, Ming-Ming Feng, Wei Zhang, and Renshan Ge

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Different cardiovascular effects of progestins according to structure and activity, Anita Nath and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Disruption of the blood-testis barrier integrity by bisphenol A in vitro: Is this a suitable model for studying blood-testis barrier dynamics?, Michelle W.M. Li, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Distribution, metabolism and excretion of a synthetic androgen 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone, a potential male-contraceptive, Pramod Vishwanath Prasad, Ramamani Arumugam, Mark Willman, Renshan Ge, Régine Sitruk-Ware, and Narender Kumar

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Double-stranded RNA analog poly(I:C) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus amplification in dendritic cells via type I interferon-mediated activation of APOBEC3G, Susanna Trapp, Nina Derby, Rachel Singer, Andrew Shaw, Vennansha G. Williams, Stuart G. Turville, Julian W. Bess Jr., Jeffrey D. Lifson, and Melissa Robbiani

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Drug transporter, P-glycoprotein (MDR1), is an integrated component of the mammalian blood-testis barrier, Linlin Su, C. Yan Cheng, and Dolores D. Mruk

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Effectiveness of medical abortion with mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days, Mary Fjerstad, Irving Sivin, E. Steve Lichtenberg, James Trussell, Kelly Cleland, and Vanessa Cullins

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Effect of sexual intercourse on the absorption of levonorgestrel after vaginal administration of 0.75 mg in Carraguard® gel: A randomized, cross-over, pharmacokinetic study, Vivian Brache, Horacio B. Croxatto, Narender Kumar, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Leila Cochón, Veronica Schiappacasse, Irving Sivin, Carla Muñoz, Robin A. Maguire, and Anibal Faundes

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Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) is a novel regulator of cell adhesion and the blood-testis barrier integrity in the seminiferous epithelium, Pearl P.Y. Lie, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Extracellular matrix and its role in spermatogenesis, Michelle K.Y. Siu and C. Yan Cheng

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Focal adhesion kinase is a blood-testis barrier regulator, Erica R. Siu, Elissa W.P. Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, Catarina S. Porto, and C. Yan Cheng

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Increased proliferation but decreased steroidogenic capacity in Leydig cells from mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, Han Lin, Guo-Xin Hu, Lei Dong, Qiang Dong, Motoko Mukai, Bing-Bing Chen, Denise R. Holsberger, Chantal M. Sottas, Paul S. Cooke, Qing-Quan Lian, Xiao-Kun Li, and Renshan Ge

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In utero and lactational exposures to diethylhexyl-phthalate affect two populations of Leydig cells in male Long-Evans rats, Han Lin, Qing-Quan Lian, Guo-Xin Hu, Yuan Jin, Yunhui Zhang, Dianne O. Hardy, Guo-Rong Chen, Zhong-Qiu Lu, Chantal M. Sottas, Matthew P. Hardy, and Renshan Ge

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Leydig cells: From stem cells to aging, Haolin Chen, Renshan Ge, and Barry R. Zirkin

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Meta-analysis of 200 or 600 mg mifepristone in association with two prostaglandins for termination of early pregnancy, Michel Lièvre and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Methods for female contraception: A model for innovation in drug delivery systems, Ruth Merkatz, Barbara A. Tokay, and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Mitogen-activated protein kinases in male reproductive function, Michelle W.M. Li, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) regulates glucocorticoid metabolism through 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in murine gonadotrope cells, Dun Hong, Xing-Wang Li, Qing-Quan Lian, Pankaj Lamba, Daniel J. Bernard, Dianne O. Hardy, Hai-Xiao Chen, and Renshan Ge

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Nitric oxide and cyclic nucleotides: Their roles in junction dynamics and spermatogenesis, Nikki P.Y. Lee and C. Yan Cheng

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Normal responses to restraint stress in mice lacking the gene for neuronal nitric oxide synthase, Ben-Avi Weissman, Chantal M. Sottas, Michael Holmes, Ping Zhou, Costantino Iadecola, Dianne O. Hardy, Renshan Ge, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Novel non-oral hormonal contraceptive methods for women, Anita Nath and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Parenteral administration of progestins for hormonal replacement therapy, Anita Nath and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Peptidergic not monoaminergic fibers profusely innervate the young adult human testis, Yong-Guang Gong, Ming-Ming Feng, Xiang-Nong Hu, Yi-Qiu Wang, Min Gu, Wei Zhang, and Renshan Ge

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Pharmacology and clinical applications of selective estrogen receptor modulators, Anita Nath and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence, Guo-Xin Hu, Qing-Quan Lian, Renshan Ge, Dianne O. Hardy, and Xiao-Kun Li

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Phthalate levels and low birth weight: A nested case-control study of Chinese newborns, Yunhui Zhang, Ling Lin, Yang Cao, Bingheng Chen, Lixing Zheng, and Renshan Ge

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Polarity proteins and cell–cell interactions in the testis, Elissa W.P. Wong and C. Yan Cheng

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RAB13 participates in ectoplasmic specialization dynamics in the rat testis, Dolores D. Mruk and Ann S.N. Lau

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Rates of serious infection after changes in regimens for medical abortion, Mary Fjerstad, James Trussell, Irving Sivin, E. Steve Lichtenberg, and Vanessa Cullins

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Regulation of blood-testis barrier dynamics by focal adhesion kinase (FAK): An unexpected turn of events, C. Yan Cheng and Dolores D. Mruk

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Safety and availability of dapivirine (TMC120) delivered from an intravaginal ring, Joseph W. Romano, Bruce Variano, P. Coplan, J. Van Roey, K. Douville, Zeda Rosenberg, Marleen Temmerman, H. Verstraelen, L. Van Bortel, S. Weyers, and M. Mitchnick

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Testicular cell junction: A novel target for male contraception, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Elissa W.P. Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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TGF-β3 and TNFα perturb blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics by accelerating the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of integral membrane proteins: A new concept of BTB regulation during spermatogenesis, Weiliang Xia, Elissa W.P. Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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The (+)- and (-)-gossypols potently inhibit human and rat 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, Bing-Bing Chen, Han Lin, Guo-Xin Hu, Ying Su, Hong-Yu Zhou, Qing-Quan Lian, Hui Cai, Dianne O. Hardy, Ding-Ying Gu, and Renshan Ge

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Tonsillar application of AT-2 SIV affords partial protection against rectal challenge with SIVmac239, Panagiotis Vagenas; Vennansha G. Williams; Michael Piatak, Jr.; Julian W. Bess; Jeffrey D. Lifson; James Blanchard; Agegnehu Gettie; and Melissa Robbiani

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Transcription regulation in spermatogenesis, Wing-Yee Lui and C. Yan Cheng

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Unexpected heaping in reported gestational age for women undergoing medical abortion, Irving Sivin, James Trussell, E. Steve Lichtenberg, Mary Fjerstad, Kelly Cleland, and Vanessa Cullins

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Value of serum antisperm antibodies in diagnosing obstructive azoospermia, Richard Lee, Marc Goldstein, Brant W. Ullery, Joshua Ehrlich, Marc Soares, Renee A. Razzano, Michael Herman, Mark A. Callahan, Philip S. Li, Peter N. Schlegel, and Steven S. Witkin

Submissions from 2008

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Adult varicocele, Howard H. Kim and Marc Goldstein

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A fusion inhibitor prevents spread of immunodeficiency viruses, but not activation of virus-specific T cells, by dendritic cells, Ines Frank, Hella Stössel, Agegnehu Gettie, Stuart G. Turville, Julian W. Bess, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Irving Sivin, Nikolaus Romani, and Melissa Robbiani

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An autocrine axis in the testis that coordinates spermiation and blood-testis barrier restructuring during spermatogenesis, Helen H.N. Yan, Dolores D. Mruk, Elissa W.P. Wong, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Anchoring junctions as drug targets: Role in contraceptive development, Dolores D. Mruk, Bruno Silvestrini, and C. Yan Cheng

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A randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and acceptability of use of carraguard vaginal gel by heterosexual couples in Thailand, Peter H. Kilmarx, Kelly Blanchard, Supaporn Chaikummao, Barbara Friedland, Nucharee Srivirojana, Cathy Connolly, Paisit Witwatwongwana, Somsak Supawitkul, Philip A. Mock, Thanyanan Chaowanachan, and Jordan W. Tappero

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Biology and regulation of ectoplasmic specialization, an atypical adherens junction type, in the testis, Elissa W.P. Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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Blood-testis barrier dynamics are regulated by testosterone and cytokines via their differential effects on the kinetics of protein endocytosis and recycling in Sertoli cells, Helen H.N. Yan, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Candida albicans-induced DC activation partially restricts HIV amplification in DCs and increases DC to T-cell spread of HIV, Laurence Vachot, Vennansha G. Williams, Julian W. Bess, Jeffrey D. Lifson, and Melissa Robbiani

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CD4-specific designed ankyrin repeat proteins are novel potent HIV entry inhibitors with unique characteristics, Andreas Schweizer, Peter Rusert, Livia Berlinger, Claudia R. Ruprecht, Axel Mann, Stéphanie Corthesy, Stuart G. Turville, Meropi Aravantinou, Marek Fischer, Melissa Robbiani, Patrick Amstutz, and Alexandra Trkola

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Comparative actions of progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, drospirenone and nestorone on breast cancer cell migration and invasion, Xiao-Dong Fu, Maria Silva Giretti, Lorenzo Goglia, Marina Ines Flamini, Angel Matias Sanchez, Chiara Baldacci, Silvia Garibaldi, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Andrea R. Genazzani, and Tommaso Simoncini

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Cross-talk between tight and anchoring junctions: Lesson from the testis, Helen H.N. Yan, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Cyclic 3′,5′-AMP causes ADAM1/ADAM2 to rapidly diffuse within the plasma membrane of guinea pig sperm, Gary R. Hunnicutt, Dennis E. Koppel, Susanna Kwitny, and Ann E. Cowan

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Delivering non-hormonal contraceptives to men: Advances and obstacles, Dolores D. Mruk and C. Yan Cheng

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Delivery of contraceptives to men: Lesson from other therapeutic drugs, Elissa W.P. Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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Determinants of the rate and extent of spermatogenic suppression during hormonal male contraception: An integrated analysis, Peter Y. Liu, Ronald S. Swerdloff, Bradley D. Anawalt, Richard A. Anderson, William J. Bremner, Joerg Elliesen, Yi-Qun Gu, Wendy M. Kersemaekers, Robert I. McLachlan, M. Cristina Meriggiola, Eberhard Nieschlag, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Kirsten M. Vogelsong, Xing-Hai Wang, Frederick C.W. Wu, Michael Zitzmann, David J. Handelsman, and Christina Wang

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Does estrogen therapy reduce coronary artery calcification in postmenopausal women?, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Dynamins, spermatogenesis and contraceptive development, Pearl P.Y. Lie, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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Efficacy of Carraguard®-based microbicides in vivo despite variable in vitro activity, Stuart G. Turville, Meropi Aravantinou, Todd Miller, Jessica Kenney, Aaron Teitelbaum, Lieyu Hu, Anne Chudolij, Thomas M. Zydowsky, Michael Piatak Jr., Julian W. Bess Jr., Jeffrey D. Lifson, James Blanchard, Agegnehu Gettie, and Melissa Robbiani

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Efficacy of Carraguard for prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Stephanie Skoler-Karpoff, Gita Ramjee, Khatija Ahmed, Lydia Altini, Marlena Gehret Plagianos, Barbara Friedland, Sumen Govender, Alana de Kock, Nazira Cassim, Thesla Palanee, Gregory Dozier, Robin A. Maguire, and Pekka Lahteenmaki

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Endocrine manipulation in male infertility, Howard H. Kim and Peter N. Schlegel

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Feline immunodeficiency virus dendritic cell infection and transfer, Wendy S. Sprague, Melissa Robbiani, Paul R. Avery, Kevin P. O'Halloran, and Edward A. Hoover

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Identification and characterization of the minimal androgen-regulated kidney-specific kidney androgen-regulated protein gene promoter, Liqiang Fan, Dianne O. Hardy, James F. Catteral, Jian Zhao, and Suxia Li

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Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymatic activities by glycyrrhetinic acid in vivo supports direct glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of steroidogenesis in leydig cells, Guo-Xin Hu, Han Lin, Chantal M. Sottas, David J. Morris, Matthew P. Hardy, and Renshan Ge

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Interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) is a novel regulator of the blood-testis barrier in the rat, Oli Sarkar, Premendu P. Mathur, C. Yan Cheng, and Dolores D. Mruk

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Involvement of testicular growth factors in fetal Leydig cell aggregation after exposure to phthalate in utero, Han Lin, Renshan Ge, Guo-Rong Chen, Guo-Xin Hu, Lei Dong, Qing-Quan Lian, Dianne O. Hardy, Chantal M. Sottas, Xiao-Kun Li, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Microbicide product development, Robin A. Maguire

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Microbicides: Chemistry, structure, and strategy, Thomas Zydowsky

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Modulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression by bombesin: A possible mechanism for glucocorticoid resistance in androgen independent prostate cancer, J.G. Lee, Renshan Ge, Dianne O. Hardy, K. Leong, D.M. Nanus, Matthew P. Hardy, and R. Shen

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Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate increases spermatocyte mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 and cyclooxygenase 2, Thomas M. Onorato, Petrice W. Brown, and Patricia L. Morris

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New perspectives in non-hormonal male contraception, Dolores D. Mruk

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New vistas in contraceptive technology, Saumya Ramarao, Régine Sitruk-Ware, and John Townsend

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Nitric oxide-cGMP signaling: Its role in cell junction dynamics during spermatogenesis, Oli Sarkar, Premendu P. Mathur, and Dolores D. Mruk

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Par3/Par6 polarity complex coordinates apical ectoplasmic specialization and blood-testis barrier restructuring during spermatogenesis, Elissa W.P. Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Progesterone and progestins: Neuroprotection and myelin repair, Michael Schumacher, Régine Sitruk-Ware, and Alejandro De Nicola

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Progesterone receptor modulator CDB-2914 induces extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells, Qin Xu, Noriyuki Ohara, Jin Liu, Mariko Amano, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Shigeki Yoshida, and Takeshi Maruo

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Rapid mechanisms of glucocorticoid signaling in the Leydig cell, Guo-Xin Hu, Qing-Quan Lian, Han Lin, Syed A. Latif, David J. Morris, Matthew P. Hardy, and Renshan Ge

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Reassessing reconstruction in the management of obstructive azoospermia: Reconstruction or sperm acquisition?, Richard Lee, Philip S. Li, Peter N. Schlegel, and Marc Goldstein

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Resolution of de novo HIV production and trafficking in immature dendritic cells, Stuart G. Turville, Meropi Aravantinou, Hella Stoessel, Nikolaus Romani, and Melissa Robbiani

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Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-1, SUMO-2/3 and SUMOylation are involved with centromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes 9 and 1 and proteins of the synaptonemal complex during meiosis in men, Petrice W. Brown, KeumSil Hwang, Peter N. Schlegel, and Patricia L. Morris

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Sphingomyelin synthases and testicular function, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Elissa W.P. Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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"Unlocking" the blood-testis barrier and the ectoplasmic specialization by cytokines during spermatogenesis: Emerging targets for male contraception, Michelle W.M. Li, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

Submissions from 2007

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7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) vs testosterone in combination with etonogestrel implants for spermatogenic suppression in healthy men, Melanie J. Walton, Narender Kumar, David T. Baird, Helen Ludlow, and Richard A. Anderson

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Acceptability of Carraguard, a candidate microbicide and methyl cellulose placebo vaginal gels among HIV-positive women and men in Durban, South Africa, Gita Ramjee, Neetha S. Morar, Sarah Braunstein, Barbara Friedland, Heidi E. Jones, and Janneke van de Wijgert

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An initial pharmacokinetic study with a Metered Dose Transdermal System® for delivery of the progestogen Nestorone® as a possible future contraceptive, Ian S. Fraser, Edith Weisberg, Narender Kumar, Sushma Kumar, Andrew J. Humberstone, Louise McCrossin, Deborah Shaw, Yun-yen Tsong, and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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A seamless trespass: Germ cell migration across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis, Claire Q.F. Wang and C. Yan Cheng

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Biphasic effects of postnatal exposure to diethylhexylphthalate on the timing of puberty in male rats, Renshan Ge, Guo-Rong Chen, Qiang Dong, Benson T. Akingbemi, Chantal M. Sottas, Michelle Santos, Stuart C. Sealfon, Daniel J. Bernard, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Carrageenan/MIV-150 (PC-815), a combination microbicide, José Fernández-Romero, Mitchell Thorn, Stuart G. Turville, Kanani Titchen, Kristin M. Sudol, Jifan Li, Todd Miller, Melissa Robbiani, Robin A. Maguire, Robert W. Buckheit Jr., Tracy L. Hartman, and David M. Phillips

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Cellular localization of sphingomyelin synthase 2 in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Dolores D. Mruk, Weiliang Xia, and C. Yan Cheng

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Comparison of the impact of vaginal and oral administration of combined hormonal contraceptives on hepatic proteins sensitive to estrogen, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Joel Menard, Mandana Rad, Jacobus Burggraaf, Marieke L. de Kam, Barbara A. Tokay, Irving Sivin, and Cornelis Kluft

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Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a product of Sertoli and germ cells in rat testes which is localized at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interface, Claire Q.F. Wang, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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C-type natriuretic peptide regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics in adult rat testes, Weiliang Xia, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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Current concepts of HIV transmission, Gavin Morrow, Laurence Vachot, Panagiotis Vagenas, and Melissa Robbiani

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Determining the feasibility of utilizing the microbicide applicator compliance assay for use in clinical trials, Andrea R. Wallace, Aaron Teitelbaum, Livia Wan, Maria Gloria Mulima, Laura Guichard, Stephanie Skoler, Hlengiwe Vilakazi, Fridda S. Mapula, Jasmine Rossier, Sumentheran N. Govender, Pekka Lahteenmaki, Robin A. Maguire, and David M. Phillips

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Development of a cryopreservation protocol for Leydig cells, Guo-Rong Chen, Renshan Ge, Han Lin, Lei Dong, Chantal M. Sottas, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Ectoplasmic specialization: A friend or a foe of spermatogenesis?, Helen H.N. Yan, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Effect of a single vaginal administration of levonorgestrel in Carraguard® gel on the ovulatory process: A potential candidate for "dual protection" emergency contraception, Vivian Brache, Horacio B. Croxatto, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Robin A. Maguire, Juan Carlos Montero, Narender Kumar, Ana Maria Salvatierra, Ana Sofia Tejada, Leila Cochon, María Luisa Forcelledo, Pekka Lahteenmaki, Francisco Alvarez, and Anibal Faundes

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Effects of estradiol with oral or intravaginal progesterone on risk markers for breast cancer in a postmenopausal monkey model, Charles E. Wood, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Yun-yen Tsong, Thomas C. Register, Cynthia J. Lees, and J. Mark Cline

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Effects of levonorgestrel-releasing IUS and progesterone receptor modulator PRM CDB-2914 on uterine leiomyomas, Takeshi Maruo, Noriyuki Ohara, Hiroya Matsuo, Qin Xu, Wei Chen, Régine Sitruk-Ware, and Elof D.B. Johansson

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Effects of oral and transvaginal ethinyl estradiol on hemostatic factors and hepatic proteins in a randomized, crossover study, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Genevieve Plu-Bureau, Joel Menard, Jacqueline Conard, Sushma Kumar, Jean-Christophe Thalabard, Barbara A. Tokay, and Philippe Bouchard

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Gene expression during development of fetal and adult Leydig cells, Lei Dong, Scott A. Jelinsky, Joshua N. Finger, Daniel S. Johnston, Gregory S. Kopf, Chantal M. Sottas, Matthew P. Hardy, and Renshan Ge

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GM1 dynamics as a marker for membrane changes associated with the process of capacitation in murine and bovine spermatozoa, Vimal Selvaraj, Danielle E. Buttke, Atsushi Asano, John L. McElwee, Collin A. Wolff, Jacquelyn L. Nelson, Angela V. Klaus, Gary R. Hunnicutt, and Alexander J. Travis