The Population Council’s Center for Biomedical Research (CBR) is a vibrant hub of scientific investigation and product development. Our scientists address critical questions in reproductive health and develop innovative products that protect the health and well-being of millions of people worldwide. CBR is located at Rockefeller University in New York City.

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Submissions from 2007

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Hormone therapy effects on social behavior and activity levels of surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys, Carol A. Shively, Charles E. Wood, Thomas C. Register, Stephanie L. Willard, Cynthia J. Lees, Haiying Chen, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Yun-yen Tsong, and J. Mark Cline

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Junction restructuring and spermatogenesis: The biology, regulation, and implication in male contraceptive development, Helen H.N. Yan, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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New hormonal therapies and regimens in the postmenopause: Routes of administration and timing of initiation, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Pharmacokinetic study to compare the absorption and tolerability of two doses of levonorgestrel following single vaginal administration of levonorgestrel in Carraguard® gel: A new formulation for "dual protection" contraception, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Vivian Brache, Robin A. Maguire, Horacio B. Croxatto, Narender Kumar, Sushma Kumar, Juan Carlos Montero, Ana Maria Salvatierra, David M. Phillips, and Anibal Faundes

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Phthalate ester toxicity in Leydig cells: Developmental timing and dosage considerations, Renshan Ge, Guo-Rong Chen, Cigdem Tanrikut, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Preclinical and clinical properties of trimegestone: A potent and selective progestin, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Ronald Bossemeyer, and Phillipe Bouchard

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Rab4A GTPase-catenin interactions are involved in cell junction dynamics in the testis, Dolores D. Mruk, Ann S.N. Lau, Oli Sarkar, and Weiliang Xia

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Regulation of cell junction dynamics by cytokines in the testis—A molecular and biochemical perspective, Wing Yee Lui and C. Yan Cheng

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Routes of delivery for progesterone and progestins, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Special issue on intrauterine devices and systems, Régine Sitruk-Ware and Peter J. Donaldson

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Targeted and reversible disruption of the blood-testis barrier by an FSH mutant-occludin peptide conjugate, Ching-hang Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Testosterone production in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is sensitive to restraint stress, Ben-Avi Weissman, Chantal M. Sottas, Ping Zhou, Costantino Iadecola, and Matthew P. Hardy

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The levonorgestrel intrauterine system for use in peri- and postmenopausal women, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Unraveling the molecular targets pertinent to junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis using the Adjudin-induced germ cell depletion model, Weiliang Xia, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Utility and drawbacks of continuous use of a copper T IUD for 20 years, Irving Sivin

Submissions from 2006

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Adjudin-mediated junction restructuring in the seminiferous epithelium leads to displacement of soluble guanylate cyclase from adherens junctions, Oli Sarkar, Weiliang Xia, and Dolores D. Mruk

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A male contraceptive targeting germ cell adhesion, Dolores D. Mruk, Ching-hang Wong, Bruno Silvestrini, and C. Yan Cheng

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A multistep kinase-based Sertoli cell autocrine-amplifying loop regulates prostaglandins, their receptors, and cytokines, Tomomoto Ishikawa and Patricia L. Morris

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A novel class of small RNAs bind to MILI protein in mouse testes, Alexei Aravin, Dimos Gaidatzis, Sebastien Pfeffer, Mariana Lagos-Quintana, Pablo Landgraf, Nicola Iovino, Patricia L. Morris, Michael J. Brownstein, Satomi Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Toru Nakano, Minchen Chien, James J. Russo, Jingyue Ju, Robert Sheridan, Chris Sander, Mihaela Zavolan, and Thomas Tuschl

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A novel pathway involving progesterone receptor, endothelin-2, and endothelin receptor B controls ovulation in mice, Gopinath S. Palanisamy, Yong-Pil Cheon, Jaeyeon Kim, Athilakshmi Kannan, Quanxi Li, Marcey Sato, Srinivasa R. Mantena, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Milan K. Bagchi, and Indrani C. Bagchi

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Comparative effects of a contraceptive vaginal ring delivering a nonandrogenic progestin and continuous ethinyl estradiol and a combined oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel on hemostasis variables, Mandana Rad, Cornelis Kluft, Joel Ménard, Jacobus Burggraaf, Marieke L. de Kam, Piet Meijer, Irving Sivin, and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Contraception: An international perspective, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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CpG-C ISS-ODN activation of blood-derived B cells from healthy and chronic immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques, Natalia Teleshova, Jessica Kenney, Vennansha G. Williams, Gary Van Nest, Jason Marshall, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Irving Sivin, Jason Dufour, Rudolf Bohm, Agegnehu Gettie, and Melissa Robbiani

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Cyclical mastalgia and breast cancer risk: Results of a French cohort study, Genevieve Plu-Bureau, Monique G. Lê, Régine Sitruk-Ware, and Jean-Christophe Thalabard

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Day of Dialogue on Public Sector Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products, Population Council

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Dendritic cells and HIV infection: Activating dendritic cells to boost immunity, Natalia Teleshova, Jessica Kenney, and Melissa Robbiani

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Differential interactions between transforming growth factor-β3/ TβR1, TAB1, and CD2AP disrupt blood-testis barrier and sertoli-germ cell adhesion, Weiliang Xia, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Dynamic II interacts with the cadherin- and occludin-based protein complexes at the blood-testis barrier in adult rat testes, Pearl P.Y. Lie, Weiliang Xia, Claire Q.F. Wang, Dolores D. Mruk, Helen H.N. Yan, Ching-hang Wong, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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In search of rat stem Leydig cells: Identification, isolation, and lineage-specific development, Renshan Ge, Qiang Dong, Chantal M. Sottas, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Barry R. Zirkin, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Interleukin-1β signals through a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production pathway in sertoli epithelial cells, Tomomoto Ishikawa and Patricia L. Morris

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Laminin α3 forms a complex with β3 and γ3 chains that serves as the ligand for α6β1-integrin at the apical ectoplasmic specialization in adult rat testes, Helen H.N. Yan and C. Yan Cheng

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Local and systemic effects of intranodally injected CpG-C immunostimulatory-oligodeoxyribonucleotides in macaques, Natalia Teleshova, Jessica Kenney, Gary Van Nest, Jason Marshall, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Irving Sivin, Jason Dufour, Rudolf Bohm, Agegnehu Gettie, and Melissa Robbiani

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Long-term administration of mifepristone (RU486): Clinical tolerance during extended treatment of meningioma, Steven M. Grunberg, Martin H. Weiss, Christy A. Russell, Irving M. Spitz, Jamshid Ahmadi, Alfredo Sadun, and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Lymphocyte–dendritic cell interactions and mucosal acquisition of SIV/HIV infection, Stuart G. Turville, Silvia Peretti, and Melissa Robbiani

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Mifepristone and misoprostol sequential regimen side effects, complications and safety, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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New progestagens for contraceptive use, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Progesterone receptor modulator CDB-2914 down-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor, adrenomedullin and their receptors and modulates progesterone receptor content in cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells, Qin Xu, Noriyuki Ohara, Wei Chen, Jin Liu, Hiroko Sasaki, Akira Morikawa, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Elof D.B. Johansson, and Takeshi Maruo

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Safety and acceptability of the candidate microbicide carraguard in Thai women: Findings from a Phase II clinical trial, Peter H. Kilmarx, Janneke van de Wijgert, Supaporn Chaikummao, Heidi E. Jones, Khanchit Limpakarnjanarat, Barbara Friedland, John M. Karon, Chomnad Manopaiboon, Nucharee Srivirojana, Somboonsak Yanpaisarn, Somsak Supawitkul, Nancy L. Young, Philip A. Mock, Kelly Blanchard, and Timothy D. Mastro

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Slamming the door on unwanted guests: Why preemptive strikes at the mucosa may be the best strategy against HIV, Susanna Trapp, Stuart G. Turville, and Melissa Robbiani

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Sleeping with the enemy: The insidious relationship between dendritic cells and immunodeficiency viruses, Laurence Vachot, Stuart G. Turville, Susanna Trapp, Silvia Peretti, Gavin Morrow, Ines Frank, and Melissa Robbiani

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SUMO-1, human male germ cell development, and the androgen receptor in the testis of men with normal and abnormal spermatogenesis, Margarita Vigodner, Tomomoto Ishikawa, Peter N. Schlegel, and Patricia L. Morris

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The sertoli-spermatid junctional complex adhesion strength is affected in vitro by adjudin, Katja M. Wolski, Dolores D. Mruk, and Don F. Cameron

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Transition from Norplant to Jadelle in a clinic with extensive experience providing contraceptive implants, Vivian Brache, Anibal Faundes, Francisco Alvarez-Sanchez, and Ana-Gloria García

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Tumor necrosis factor α reversibly disrupts the blood-testis barrier and impairs Sertoli-germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes, Michelle W.M. Li, Weiliang Xia, Dolores D. Mruk, Claire Q.F. Wang, Helen H.N. Yan, Michelle K.Y. Siu, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Visualization of GM1 with cholera toxin B in live epididymal versus ejaculated bull, mouse, and human spermatozoa, Danielle E. Buttke, Jacquelyn L. Nelson, Peter N. Schlegel, Gary R. Hunnicutt, and Alexander J. Travis

Submissions from 2005

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11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in rat leydig cells: Its role in blunting glucocorticoid action at physiological levels of substrate, Renshan Ge, Qiang Dong, Enmei Niu, Chantal M. Sottas, Dianne O. Hardy, James F. Catterall, Syed A. Latif, David J. Morris, and Matthew P. Hardy

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AF-2364 [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide] is a potential male contraceptive: A review of recent data, C. Yan Cheng, Dolores D. Mruk, Bruno Silvestrini, Michele Bonanomi, Ching-hang Wong, Michelle K.Y. Siu, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Wing-Yee Lui, and Meng-Yun Mo

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Altered prostatic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, prostatic development, and serum testosterone in mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, Motoko Mukai, Qiang Dong, Matthew P. Hardy, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Richard E. Peterson, and Paul S. Cooke

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Blood-testis barrier dynamics are regulated by an engagement/disengagement mechanism between tight and adherens junctions via peripheral adaptors, Helen H.N. Yan and C. Yan Cheng

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Blood-testis barrier dynamics are regulated by α2- macroglobulin via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathway, Ching-hang Wong, Dolores D. Mruk, Michelle K.Y. Siu, and C. Yan Cheng

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Bone and muscle protective potential of the prostate-sparing synthetic androgen 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone: Evidence from the aged orchidectomized male rat model, Katrien Venken, Steven Boonen, Erik Van Herck, Liesbeth Vandenput, Narender Kumar, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Kalyan Sundaram, Roger Bouillon, and Dirk Vanderschueren

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Clinical performance and menstrual bleeding patterns with three dosage combinations of a Nestorone® progestogen/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive vaginal ring used on a bleeding-signaled regimen, Edith Weisberg, Vivian Brache, Francisco Alvarez, Rebeca Massai, Daniel R. Mishell Jr., Dan Apter, Judi Gale, Irving Sivin, Yun-yen Tsong, and Ian S. Fraser

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Contraceptive vaginal rings releasing Nestorone® and ethinylestradiol: A 1-year dose-finding trial, Irving Sivin, Daniel R. Mishell Jr., Francisco Alvarez, Vivian Brache, Kaisa Elomaa, Pekka Lähteenmäki, Rebeca Massai, Patricia Miranda, Horacio B. Croxatto, Catherine Dean, Margaret Small, Harold A. Nash, and Theodore M. Jackanicz

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Crosstalk between Rab GTPases and cell junctions, Dolores D. Mruk, Ann S.N. Lau, and Anne M. Conway

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Culture and comparison of feline myeloid dendritic cells vs macrophages, Wendy S. Sprague, Melissa Robbiani, and Edward A. Hoover

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Cytokines and junction restructuring during spermatogenesis: A lesson to learn from the testis, Weiliang Xia, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Delivery options for contraceptives, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adhesion function in the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis can be limited to adherens junctions without affecting the blood-testis barrier integrity: An in vivo study using an androgen suppression model, Weiliang Xia, Ching-hang Wong, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Elimination of retroviral infectivity by N-ethylmaleimide with preservation of functional envelope glycoproteins, David R. Morcock, James A. Thomas, Tracy D. Gagliardi, Robert J. Gorelick, J. David Roser, Elena N. Chertova, Julian W. Bess Jr., David E. Ott, Quentin J. Sattentau, Ines Frank, Melissa Robbiani, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Louis E. Henderson, and Bruce J. Crise

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Endogenous selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms 1 and 2 of adrenal origin, Syed A. Latif, Hector A. Pardo, Matthew P. Hardy, and David J. Morris

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Gene expression in rat leydig cells during development from the progenitor to adult stage: A cluster analysis, Renshan Ge, Qiang Dong, Chantal M. Sottas, Haolin Chen, Barry R. Zirkin, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Immune complex deposition in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically immunized with GnRH, Louis A. Vargas, Richard Sewell, Aileen Marshall, Josephine Galatioto, Yun-yen Tsong, James F. Catterall, and Gary R. Hunnicutt

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Immunomodulatory effects of HSV-2 infection on immature macaque dendritic cells modify innate and adaptive responses, Silvia Peretti, Andrew Shaw, James Blanchard, Rudolf Bohm, Gavin Morrow, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Agegnehu Gettie, and Melissa Robbiani

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Interactions among IQGAP1, Cdc42, and the cadherin/catenin protein complex regulate sertoli-germ cell adherens junction dynamics in the testis, Wing-Yee Lui, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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Maintenance of spermatogenesis requires TAF4b, a gonad-specific subunit of TFIID, Allison E. Falender, Richard N. Freiman, Kenneth G. Geles, Kirk C. Lo, KeumSil Hwang, Dolores J. Lamb, Patricia L. Morris, Robert Tjian, and JoAnne S. Richards

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Management of patients receiving long-term treatment with mifepristone, Irving M. Spitz, Steven M. Grunberg, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet, Tzina Lindenberg, Hadassa Gelber, and Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Mitogen-activated protein kinases, adherens junction dynamics, and spermatogenesis: A review of recent data, Ching-hang Wong and C. Yan Cheng

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Myotubularin phosphoinositide phosphatases, protein phosphatases, and kinases: Their roles in junction dynamics and spermatogenesis, Jiayi Zhang, Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng

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Paracrine modulation of androgen synthesis in rat Leydig cells by nitric oxide, Ben-Avi Weissman, Enmei Niu, Renshan Ge, Chantal M. Sottas, Michael Holmes, James C. Hutson, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Pharmacology of different progestogens: The special case of drospirenone, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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Phase III microbicide trial methodology: Opinions of experienced expanded safety trial participants in South Africa, Janneke van de Wijgert, Heidi E. Jones, Annalie Pistorius, Alana de Kock, Mohlatlego H. Sebola, Barbara Friedland, Anwar Hoosen, and Nicol Coetzee

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Population Council contributions toward the development and advances in reproductive biomedicine and population sciences in Asian nations (1952–2002), Samuel S. Koide

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Progesterone receptor modulator CDB-2914 down-regulates proliferative cell nuclear antigen and Bcl-2 protein expression and up-regulates caspase-3 and poly(adenosine 5′-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase expression in cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells, Qin Xu, Shigeki Takekida, Noriyuki Ohara, Wei Chen, Régine Sitruk-Ware, Elof D.B. Johansson, and Takeshi Maruo

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Protein kinases and adherens junction dynamics in the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis, Nikki P.Y. Lee and C. Yan Cheng

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Regulation of ectoplasmic specialization dynamics in the seminiferous epithelium by focal adhesion-associated proteins in testosterone-suppressed rat testes, Ching-hang Wong, Weiliang Xia, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Regulation of sertoli-germ cell adherens junction dynamics in the testis via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/cGMP/protein kinase G (PRKG)/β-catenin (CATNB) signaling pathway: An in vitro and in vivo study, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Dolores D. Mruk, Ching-hang Wong, and C. Yan Cheng

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Regulation of sertoli-germ cell adherens junction dynamics via changes in protein-protein interactions of the N-cadherin-β-catenin protein complex which are possibly mediated by c-Src and myotubularin-related protein 2: An in vivo study using an androgen suppression model, Jiayi Zhang, Ching-hang Wong, Weiliang Xia, Dolores D. Mruk, Nikki P.Y. Lee, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Sertoli cell expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer 1 and 5 domain-containing proteins and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 are interleukin-1 regulated by activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokine induction, Tomomoto Ishikawa, KeumSil Hwang, Deborah Lazzarino, and Patricia L. Morris

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Sertoli-germ cell anchoring junction dynamics in the testis are regulated by an interplay of lipid and protein kinases, Michelle K.Y. Siu, Ching-hang Wong, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

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Serum Nestorone® and ethinyl estradiol levels, and ovulation inhibition in women using three different dosage combinations of a Nestorone progestogen-ethinyl estradiol contraceptive vaginal ring on a bleeding-signaled regimen, Ian S. Fraser, Edith Weisberg, Vivian Brache, Francisco Alvarez, Rebeca Massai, Daniel R. Mishell Jr., Dan Apter, Judi Gale, Yun-yen Tsong, and Irving Sivin

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Stimulation of testosterone production in rat Leydig cells by aldosterone is mineralocorticoid receptor mediated, Renshan Ge, Qiang Dong, Chantal M. Sottas, Syed A. Latif, David J. Morris, and Matthew P. Hardy

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Stress hormone and male reproductive function, Matthew P. Hardy, Hui-Bao Gao, Qiang Dong, Renshan Ge, Qian Wang, Wei Ran Chai, Xing Feng, and Chantal M. Sottas

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Testicular expression of small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) supports multiple roles in spermatogenesis: Silencing of sex chromosomes in spermatocytes, spermatid microtubule nucleation, and nuclear reshaping, Margarita Vigodner and Patricia L. Morris

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TGF-β3 regulates anchoring junction dynamics in the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis via the Ras/ERK signaling pathway: An in vivo study, Weiliang Xia and C. Yan Cheng

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The blood-testis barrier: Its biology, regulation, and physiological role in spermatogenesis, Ching-hang Wong and C. Yan Cheng

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The levonorgestrel intrauterine system: Long-term contraception and therapeutic effects, Régine Sitruk-Ware and Pirjo Inki

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The Sept4 septin locus is required for sperm terminal differentiation in mice, Holger Kissel, Maria-Magdalena Georgescu, Sarit Larisch, Katia Manova, Gary R. Hunnicutt, and Hermann Steller

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Vaginal delivery of contraceptives, Régine Sitruk-Ware

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α2-Macroglobulin expression in the liver in response to inflammation is mediated by the testis, Wing-Yee Lui, Yan Ho Cheng, Dolores D. Mruk, Chin Ho Cheng, Meng-Yun Mo, Will M. Lee, and C. Yan Cheng

Submissions from 2004

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Adaptors, junction dynamics, and spermatogenesis, Nikki P.Y. Lee and C. Yan Cheng

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Assay for establishing whether microbicide applicators have been exposed to the vagina, Andrea R. Wallace, Mitchell Thorn, Robin A. Maguire, Kristin M. Sudol, and David M. Phillips

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Blockade of attachment and fusion receptors inhibits HIV-1 infection of human cervical tissue, Qinxue Hu, Ines Frank, Vennansha G. Williams, John J. Santos, Patricia Watts, George E. Griffin, John P. Moore, Melissa Robbiani, and Robin J. Shattock

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Both SMAD2 and SMAD3 mediate activin-stimulated expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit in mouse gonadotrope cells, Daniel J. Bernard

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Cell-cell interactions at the ectoplasmic specialization in the testis, Dolores D. Mruk and C. Yan Cheng

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Cloning and characterization of rat spermatid protein SSP411: A thioredoxin-like protein, Hui-Juan Shi, Ai Zhen Wu, Michelle Santos, Zong-Ming Feng, Li Huang, Yong-Mei Chen, Kai Zhu, and Ching-Ling C. Chen

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Cloning of a novel inhibin alpha cDNA from rhesus monkey testis, Daniel J. Bernard, Teresa K. Woodruff, and Tony M. Plant

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CpG-C immunostimulatory oligodeoxyribonucleotide activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in rhesus macaques to augment the activation of IFN-γ-secreting simian immunodeficiency virus-specific T cells, Natalia Teleshova, Jessica Kenney, Jennifer Jones, Jason Marshall, Gary Van Nest, Jason Dufour, Rudolf Bohm, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Agegnehu Gettie, and Melissa Robbiani

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Development of Leydig cells in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) knockout mouse: Effects of IGF-I replacement and gonadotropic stimulation, Gui-Min Wang and Matthew P. Hardy

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Disruption of Mtmr2 CMT4B1-like neuropathy with myelin outfolding and impaired spermatogenesis, Alessandra Bolino, Annalisa Bolis, Stefano Carlo Previtali, Giorgia Dina, Simona Bussini, Gabriele Dati, Stefano Amadio, Ubaldo Del Carro, Dolores D. Mruk, Maria Laura Feltri, C. Yan Cheng, Angelo Quattrini, and Lawrence Wrabetz

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Dynamic cross-talk between cells and the extracellular matrix in the testis, Michelle K.Y. Siu and C. Yan Cheng