Gender inequality, reinforced by systems of oppression around the globe, perpetuates gender discrimination, violence, and systemic neglect. These structural forces are especially pronounced in communities with multiple marginalized social identities, particularly women of color, adolescents, Indigenous people, migrants, people with disabilities, gender minorities, LGBT people, and people affected by armed conflict and mass atrocities. The world lacks basic data related to these communities’ health, safety, wellbeing, and socioeconomic status, and evidence on what works to disrupt entrenched gender systems. The Population Council collaborates with locally rooted organizations, communities, and governments using context-relevant surveys, collects rigorous data, and creates evidence-based solutions.

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Submissions from 2024

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Do adolescent girls’ education and friendships have independent effects on early pregnancy? Results of a mediation analysis from a longitudinal cohort study in Nairobi, Kenya, Christina Misunas, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Beth Kangwana, and Nicole Haberland

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Examining the association between men's gender equitable attitudes and contraceptive outcomes in rural Maharashtra, India, Mohan Ghule, Anvita Dixit, Nicole Johns, Madhusudana Battala, Shahina Begum, Sarah Averbach, Jay G. Silverman, Niranjan Saggurti, and Anita Raj

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Reclaiming African leadership to end FGM/C, Maimouna Bah

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Understanding the education profiles of eight Latin American countries, GIRL Center

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Understanding the education profiles of seven East and Southern African countries, GIRL Center

Submissions from 2023

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Accidental traffickers: Qualitative findings on labour recruitment in Ethiopia, Joanna Busza, Zewdneh Shewamene, Cathy Zimmerman, Annabel Erulkar, Eyasu Hailu, Lemi Negeri, Elizabeth Anderson, and Yuki Lo

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Adolescent girls’ agency and their labour force participation: Experimental evidence from rural Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin and Momoe Makino

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Advancing the Agenda in Girls’ Education Research, Benta Abuya, David Evans, Selim Gulesci, Nicole Haberland, Susannah Hares, Rabea Malik, Alessia Mortara, and Pauline Rose

AGI-K REPORT Documentary 2023, Population Council Kenya

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A glass ceiling at the playhouse? Gender gaps in public and private preschool enrollment in India, Arindam Nandi, Soham Sahoo, Nicole Haberland, and Thoai Ngo

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Applying a power and gender lens to understanding health care provider experience and behavior: A multicountry qualitative study, Pooja Sripad, Summer Peterson, Daoudou Idrissou, Martha Kamanga, Abigail Kezembe, Charity Ndwiga, Chantalle Okondo, Anja Noeliarivelo Ranjalahy, Natacha Stevanovic-Fenn, Charlotte E. Warren, Brady Zieman, and Sanyukta Mathur

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A scoping review of survey research with gender minority adolescents and youth in low and middle-income countries, Isabel Pike, Cara Kraus-Perrotta, and Thoai Ngo

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Community-based empowerment program to delay marriage: Results from the More Than Brides Alliance intervention in India, Malawi, Mali and Niger, Andrea J. Melnikas, Grace Saul, Michelle Chau, Neelanjana Pandey, Mouhamadou Gueye, James Mkandawire, Aissa Diarra, and Sajeda Amin

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COVID-19 lockdown and collective activities: Evidence from the world's largest self-help group program, Garima Siwach, Thomas de Hoop, Chinmaya Holla Udayakumar, and Sapna Desai

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Do child marriage programs help girls weather shocks like COVID-19? Evidence from the More Than Brides Alliance Intervention, Andrea J. Melnikas, Grace Saul, Neelanjana Pandey, Momoe Makino, Sajeda Amin, and Michelle Chau

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Effects of a single cash transfer on school re-enrollment during COVID-19 among vulnerable adolescent girls in Kenya: Randomized controlled trial, John A. Maluccio, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Beth Kangwana, Eva Ireri Muluve, Faith Mbushi, and Karen Austrian

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Evaluation of Biruh Tesfa (Bright Future) for All: A program for out-of-school girls, migrants, and domestic workers in low-income Ethiopian cities, Annabel Erulkar, Eyasu Hailu, Henock Markos, Getnet Demissie, Tsegahun Tessema, and Hana Hailu

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Evaluation of RISE II integrated social and behavior change activities in Niger: Family planning; maternal, newborn, and child health; immunization; nutrition; water, sanitation, and hygiene, Breakthrough RESEARCH

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Exploring the role of men in child marriage decision-making in rural Upper Egypt, Salma Abou Hussein, Reham Abou El-Fadl, Sally Radwan, and Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab

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Findings from a mixed methods evaluation of an integrated social and behavior change approach to improve health outcomes in Niger, Breakthrough RESEARCH

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Forgotten and exploited: The plight of migrant female domestic workers interrelated to human rights violation in Ethiopian towns, Lombebo Tagesse, Kassahun Asres, and Annabel Erulkar

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Guatemala’s Western Highlands: Addressing gendered vulnerability to climate change, Jessie Pinchoff and Angel del Valle

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Guidance document on the use of the Confidante tool to track new or recent cases of female genital mutilation, Francis Obare Onyango, Dennis Matanda, and Chi-Chi Undie

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Implementing interventions to address gender and power inequalities in early adolescence: Utilizing a theory of change to assess conditions for success, Kristin Mmari, Jennifer Gayles, Rebecka Lundgren, Katherine Barker, Karen Austrian, Ruti G. Levtov, Jane Kato-Wallace, Miranda van Reeuwijk, Lisa Richardson, Jakevia Green, Anna E. Kågestan, and Astha Ramaiya

Introduction to the Girl Roster, GIRL Center

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Menstruation and adolescent girls' daily lives in rural Upper Egypt, Salma Abou Hussein and Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab

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Menstruation and adolescent girls' daily lives in rural Upper Egypt [Arabic], Salma Abou Hussein and Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab

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Mentoring in group-based adolescent girl programs in low- and middle-income countries: Evidence-informed approaches, Miriam Temin, Sarah Blake, and Eva Roca

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Mentoring in group-based adolescent girl programs in low- and middle-income countries: Evidence-informed approaches, Miriam Temin, Sarah Blake, and Eva Roca

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Neglected gaps in improving the health, wellbeing, and care for sexual and gender minority young people living in low- and lower-middle- income countries: A scoping review, Cara Frances, Camille Garnsey, and Jessica DeMulder

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Recap Report: Girls Deliver Pre-Conference on Adolescent Girls at the Women Deliver 2023 Conference, GIRL Center

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Research snapshot: Impacts of cash-plus programs on child marriage, Elrha R2HC Programme

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Results from a multimethod exploratory scale development process to measure authoritarian provider attitudes in Democratic Republic of Congo and Togo, Martha Silva, Kathryn Spielman, Leanne Dougherty, Sethson Kassegne, and Amanda Kalamar

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Results from the Basmeh & Zeitooneh (B&Z) intervention to empower adolescent girls and young women at risk of child marriage and poor reproductive health among the Syrian refugee population in Lebanon, Rima Mourtada

The Building Assets Toolkit: The Value of an Assets-Building Approach in Girls' Programs and How to Conduct an Assets Exercise, Population Council

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The gendered effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent literacy and schooling outcomes in India, Arindam Nandi, Nicole Haberland, Meredith Kozak, and Thoai Ngo

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The impact of primary schooling expansion on adult educational attainment, literacy, and health: Evidence from India’s Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Arindam Nandi, Nicole Haberland, and Thoai Ngo

The One Who Uses a Pencil Will Go Far, Population Council Kenya

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The Radical Power of Education, Arindam Nandi, Nicole Haberland, and Thoai Ngo

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The Radical Power of Education—Brief, Arindam Nandi, Nicole Haberland, and Thoai Ngo

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Utilisation des approches de segmentation du public pour renseigner les programmes intégrés de planification familiale et de santé maternelle au Niger, Breakthrough RESEARCH

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Which intervention synergies maximize AGYW's HIV outcomes? A classification and regression tree analysis of layered HIV prevention programming, Sanyukta Mathur, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Raman Mishra, Craig Heck, and Michael Mbizvo

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Women's groups, covariate shocks, and resilience: An evidence synthesis of past shocks to inform a response to COVID-19, Rebecca Walcott, Carly Schmidt, Marina Kaminsky, Roopal Jyoti Singh, Leigh Anderson, Sapna Desai, and Thomas de Hoop

Submissions from 2022

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A3 Policy Checklist User Guide, Yeeva Cheng and Cara Kraus-Perrotta

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Adolescent health in the Middle East and North Africa region: Leaving no one behind, Fadia AlBuhairan, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Mohamed Nar, Bassam Hamad, Jennifer Dabis, Farah Feteha, Sally Saher, Khalid Siddeeg, and Mamdouh Wahba

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An Overview of the Adolescent Data Hub (ADH), Yeeva Cheng and Cara Kraus-Perrotta

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Association between school dropouts, early marriages, childbearing, and mental health in early adulthood of women: Evidence from a cohort study in Bihar, India, Ravita Yadav, Preeti Dhillon, Archana Kujur, and Sangram Kishor Patel

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Biruh Tesfa ("Bright Future"), Population Council

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Building the A3 Policy Checklist, Yeeva Cheng and Cara Kraus-Perrotta

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Building the Adolescent Indicators and Gender Gaps Dashboard, Lauren Woyczynski, Christina Misunas, and Md. Irfan Hossain

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Capacity building of national rural livelihood mission personnel on evaluations and data utilization for evidence-based decision making, Avishek Hazra, Apollonius Purty, Supriya, Jaleel Ahmad, Ankit Nanda, Raj Kumar Verma, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Crisis upon crisis: A qualitative study exploring the joint effect of the political, economic, and pandemic challenges in Lebanon on Syrian refugee women's fertility preferences and behaviour, Rima Mourtada and Andrea J. Melnikas

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Élaboration du tableau de bord A3 des indicateurs relatifs aux adolescents et du tableau de bord des écarts entre les sexes, Lauren Woyczynski, Christina Misunas, and Md. Irfan Hossain

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Evaluation of a gender synchronized family planning intervention for married couples in rural India: The CHARM2 cluster randomized control trial, Anita Raj, Mohan Ghule, Nicole Johns, Madhusudana Battala, Shahina Begum, Anvita Dixit, Florin Vaida, Niranjan Saggurti, Jay G. Silverman, and Sarah Averbach

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Exploitative working conditions for child domestic workers in Ethiopia, The Freedom Fund

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Factors associated with depression among young female migrants in Ethiopia, Annabel Erulkar and Girmay Medhin

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From Data to Action: Informing Menstrual Health Management Programs, Emily EunYoung Cho, Karen Austrian, and Nicole Haberland

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Gendered effects of COVID-19 school closures: Bangladesh case study, Eashita Haque, Natalie Wyss, Emily EunYoung Cho, and Karen Austrian

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Gendered effects of COVID-19 school closures: India case study, Neelanjana Pandey, Emily EunYoung Cho, Shilpi Rampal, and Karen Austrian

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Gendered effects of COVID-19 school closures: Kenya case study, Faith Mbushi, Natalie Wyss, Emily EunYoung Cho, Karen Austrian, Eva Ireri Muluve, Laura Muthoni, and Beth Kangwana

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Gendered effects of COVID-19 school closures: Pakistan case study, Iram Kamran, Tahira Parveen, Rehan M. Niazi, Maqsood Sadiq, Fatima Azeem, Emily EunYoung Cho, and Karen Austrian

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Gender-related barriers to schooling: What do we know about the effects of sexuality and life skills education?, Nicole Haberland

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Getting girls back to school during the COVID-19 pandemic in Kenya: Lessons from the 4Ts initiative, George Odwe and Chi-Chi Undie

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GIRL Center Roadmap to 2030, GIRL Center

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Girls on the Map: Mapping for Program Planning and Social Change, Eva Roca

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Guide d’utilisation de la liste de contrôle de la politique A3, Yeeva Cheng and Cara Kraus-Perrotta

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Identifying latent classes of empowerment among early adolescent girls and the factors that cultivate them: Evidence from a community-based skills training program, Christina Misunas and Sajeda Amin

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Improving evidence on women’s groups: A proposed typology and common reporting indicators, Sapna Desai, Thomas de Hoop, Leigh Anderson, Bidisha Barooah, Tabitha Mulyampiti, Ekwaro Obuku, Audrey Prost, and Howard White

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Intersections of financial agency, gender dynamics, and HIV risk: A qualitative study with adolescent girls and young women in Zambia, Laura Gauer Bermudez, Drosin Mulenga, Maurice Musheke, and Sanyukta Mathur

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Invisible threads: Addressing the root causes of migration from Guatemala by investing in women and girls, Ingrid Arias, Angel del Valle, Michelle Dubón, Aracely Martínez Rodas, Kathleen Mogelgaard, L. Tatiana Paz Lemus, and J. Joseph Speidel

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Learnings from past interventions in the digital era: Evidence-based considerations for adolescents’ programming using information and communication technologies, Grace Saul and Waimar Tun

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L’élaboration de la liste de contrôle pour les politiques A3, Yeeva Cheng and Cara Kraus-Perrotta

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Meeting men’s mental health needs during COVID-19 and beyond: A global health imperative, Ann Gottert, Dominick Shattuck, Julie Pulerwitz, Myra Betron, Courtney McLarnon-Silk, Jasmine Danette Wilkins, Tuo-Yen Tseng, and Interagency Gender Working Group Male Engagement Task Force

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Menstruation, myopia, and marginalization: Advancing menstrual policies to “keep girls in school” at the risk of exacerbating inequalities, Nay Alhelou, Purvaja S. Kavattur, Mary M. Olson, Lillian Rountree, and Inga T. Winkler

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Migrant women’s health and safety: Why do Ethiopian women choose irregular migration to the Middle East for domestic work?, Zewdneh Shewamene, Cathy Zimmerman, Eyasu Hailu, Lemi Negeri, Annabel Erulkar, Elizabeth J. Anderson, Yuki Lo, Orla Jackson, and Joanna Busza

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Policies and interventions to remove gender‐related barriers to girls' school participation and learning in low‐ and middle‐income countries: A systematic review of the evidence, Stephanie Psaki, Nicole Haberland, Barbara Mensch, Lauren Woyczynski, and Erica Chuang

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The development of adolescent agency and implications for reproductive choice among girls in Zambia, Katharine McCarthy, Katarzyna Wyka, Diana Romero, Karen Austrian, and Heidi E. Jones

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The good, the bad and the unintended: Education, child marriage and early childbearing, Thoai Ngo

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The role of agents and brokers in facilitating Ethiopian women into domestic work in the Middle East: Findings from the Meneshachin (‘Our Departure’) study on responsible recruitment models, Joanna Busza, Zewdneh Sabe, and Cathy Zimmerman

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The taboo gap: Implications for adolescent risk of HIV infection, Sophia N. Nesamoney, Iván Mejía-Guevara, Ann M. Weber, Beniamino Cislaghi, Michael Mbizvo, and Gary L. Darmstadt

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Towards safer recruitment of Ethiopian women into domestic work abroad: Early findings from the Meneshachin ‘Our Departure’ qualitative study, Joanna Busza, Zewdneh Shewamene, and Cathy Zimmerman

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Understanding quality of contraceptive counseling in the CHARM2 gender-equity focused family planning intervention: Findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial among couples in rural India, Sarah Averbach, Nicole Johns, Mohan Ghule, Anvita Dixit, Shahina Begum, Madhusudana Battala, Niranjan Saggurti, Jay G. Silverman, and Anita Raj

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Using audience segmentation approaches to inform integrated family planning and maternal health programs in Niger, Breakthrough RESEARCH

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‘We are the bridge’: An implementation research study of SEWA Shakti Kendras to improve community engagement in publicly funded health insurance in Gujarat, India, Susan Thomas, Sharmada Sivaram, Zubin Shroff, Ajay Mahal, and Sapna Desai

Webinar—From Data to Action: Informing Menstrual Health Management Programs, Karen Austrian, Nicole Haberland, Beth Kangwana, and Megan White Mukuria

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What works to improve outcomes for Kenya’s adolescent girls?, Population Council

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“When you live in good health with your husband, then your children are in good health ….” A qualitative exploration of how households make healthcare decisions in Maradi and Zinder Regions, Niger, Sara Chace Dwyer, Sanyukta Mathur, Karen Kirk, Chaibou Dadi, and Leanne Dougherty

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Women's groups and COVID-19: An evidence review on savings groups in Africa, Olayinka Adegbite, Leigh Anderson, Sybil Chidiac, Osasuyi Dirisu, Jenna Grzeslo, Julia Hakspiel, Chinmaya Holla, Emily Janoch, Krishna Jafa, Shubha Jayaram, Grace Majara, Tabitha Mulyampiti, Eve Namisango, Eva Noble, Bukola Onyishi, David Panetta, Garima Siwach, Munshi Sulaiman, Rebecca Walcott, Sapna Desai, and Thomas de Hoop

Submissions from 2021

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A Covid Agenda from the Perspective of Adolescent Girls and Young Women, Judith Bruce

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Action for adolescent girls and COVID-19: Implications for safe space programming in the Sahel, Population Council

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Adolescent girls and COVID-19: Mapping the evidence on interventions, Sarah Blake, Miriam Temin, Tara Abularrage, and Nihal Said

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Adolescent girls’ and young women’s economic empowerment programs: Emerging insights from a review of reviews, Nicole Haberland, Thomas de Hoop, Sapna Desai, Sarah Engebretsen, and Thoai Ngo

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Advancing girls' education in light of COVID-19 in East Africa: A synthesis report, Population Council, Regional Education Learning Initiative, and Mannion Daniels

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Crezcamos felices: Manual sobre prevención de la violencia para mentoras del programa Abriendo Oportunidades, Population Council

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Dataset—Shifting gender norms to improve HIV service uptake: Qualitative findings from a large-scale community mobilization intervention in rural South Africa, Anna M. Leddy, Ann Gottert, Nicole Haberland, Jennifer Hove, Sheri A. Lippman, Kathleen Kahn, Rhandzekile Mathebula, Dumisani Rebombo, Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Rhian Twine, Dean Peacock, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Decolonised and Inclusive: Reflections on the Generation of Violence Against Women (VAW) Prevention Evidence for African Women’s Rights Organisations, Sexual Violence Research Initiative

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Delivering on the promise of gender equity in India: Lessons from the UDAYA Study, Nidhi Khurana

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Effects of an e-reader intervention on literacy, numeracy and non-verbal reasoning among adolescent girls in Zambia: Evidence from a randomised controlled trial, Barbara Mensch, Nicole Haberland, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Jean Digitale, Natalie Jackson Hachonda, Nachela Chelwa, Pamela Nyirenda, Erica Chuang, Lisa Polen, Stephanie Psaki, Nkomba Kayeyi, and Michael Mbizvo

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Empowering women in conservative settings: Evidence from an intervention in rural Egypt, Ahmed Elsayed, Soiliou Daw Namoro, and Rania Roushdy

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Endline Results Brief: What works to improve outcomes for Kenya's adolescent girls?, Population Council