The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2008

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Sexual risk behaviours and HIV seroprevalence among male sex workers who have sex with men and non-sex workers in Campinas, Brazil, Waimar Tun, Maeve de Mello, Adriana A. Pinho, Magda Chinaglia, and Juan Diaz

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Short- and long-term efficacy of modified directly-observed antiretroviral treatment in Mombasa, Kenya: A randomised trial, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Scott Geibel, Matthew F. Chersich, Paul Munyao, Susan Kaai, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Khadija Shikely, Marleen Temmerman, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Supporting orphans and vulnerable children affected by AIDS: Using community-generated definitions to explore patterns of children's vulnerability in Zambia, Katie D. Schenk, Lewis Ndhlovu, Stephen Tembo, Andson Nsune, Chozi Nkhata, Batuke Walusiku, and Charlotte Watts

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The HIV testing experiences of adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: Do families and friends matter?, Julie Denison, Ann P. McCauley, Wendy A. Dunnett-Dagg, Nalakwanji Lungu, and Michael D. Sweat

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Training youth caregivers to provide HIV education and support to orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa, Tobey C. Nelson, Eka Esu-Williams, Lungile Mchunu, Pinkie Nyamakazi, S'Fiso Mnguni, Katie D. Schenk, Catherine Searle, and Jennifer Redner

Submissions from 2007

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Addressing Gupt Rog: Narrative prevention counselling for STI/HIV prevention—A guide to AYUSH and allopathic practitioners, Bonnie K. Nastasi, Niranjan Saggurti, Stephen L. Schensul, Ravi K. Verma, and Meena Gandhi

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'Are you on the market?': A capture-recapture enumeration of men who sell sex to men in and around Mombasa, Kenya, Scott Geibel, Elisabeth M. van der Elst, Nzioki King'ola, Stanley Luchters, Alun Davies, Esther M. Getambu, Norbert Peshu, Susan M. Graham, R. Scott McClelland, and Eduard J. Sanders

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Beacon of hope: Evaluation of the Kenya Girl Guides Association HIV/AIDS program for school children, Karusa Kiragu, George Odingo, Milka Juma, Jane Mbugua, Magdalen Waweru, Wamuyu Mahinda, Beatrice Mwaniki, Charity Muturi, Simon Ochieng, Tobey C. Nelson, and Ann P. McCauley

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Building the capacity of faith-based organizations to promote mutual monogamy in South Africa, Waimar Tun, Nathi Sohaba, Unathi Malinzi, Matthew Nqono, Osborne Mzilikazi, Bonisiwa Mgujulwa, Moses Madywabe, Mbulelo Fatyeni, and Christine Fontecchio

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Carraguard vaginal gel safety in HIV-positive women and men in South Africa, Janneke van de Wijgert, Sarah Braunstein, Neetha S. Morar, Heidi E. Jones, Lorna Madurai, Tammy T. Evans Strickfaden, Manivasan Moodley, Jamila Aboobaker, Gugulethu Ndlovu, Taja M. Ferguson, Barbara Friedland, Clyde E. Hart, and Gita Ramjee

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Changes in stigma among a cohort of people on antiretroviral therapy: Findings from Mombasa, Kenya, Susan Kaai, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Scott Geibel, Paul Munyao, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Khadija Shikely, Marleen Temmerman, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Chaos, co-existence, and the potential for collective action: HIV-related vulnerability in Brazil's international borders, Sheri A. Lippman, Deanna Kerrigan, Magda Chinaglia, and Juan Diaz

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Community-based approaches to prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Findings from a low-income community in Kenya, Susan Kaai, Carolyn Baek, Scott Geibel, Peter Omondi, Benson Ulo, Grace Muthumbi, Carol Nkatha, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Continuum of care for HIV-positive women accessing programs to prevent parent-to-child transmission: Findings from India, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Rupa Mudoi, Archana Oinam, Venkat Pakkela, Avina Sarna, Sucheta Panda, Ashok Rau, L. Birendrajit Singh, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Current research and good practice in HIV and AIDS treatment education, Avina Sarna and Ellen Weiss

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Day of dialogue—Insights and evidence from product introduction: Lessons for microbicides, Martha Brady and C. Elizabeth McGrory

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Engaging advocates from concept to results: Summary report of the Advocates' Consultation on HIV Prevention Trials: Carraguard and VOICE Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa, 18-19 October 2007, Microbicide Trials Network and Population Council

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Exploring the barriers to accessing care and treatment for HIV-infected children in India: A diagnostic study, Avina Sarna, Jaleel Ahmad, Glory Alexander, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Ashok Rau, Arjun Singh, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Identifying areas for linkages between HIV and SRH for vulnerable populations: An exploratory study to assess female sex workers' sexual and reproductive health needs, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Sushma Mehrotra, B. Srikanthi, Sucheta Panda, Avina Sarna, A.K. Jayasree, Rajendra Prasad, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Impact of antiretroviral therapy on household economics: Findings from Mombasa, Kenya, Rick Homan, Desai Jaikishan, Paul Munyao, Avina Sarna, and Scott Geibel

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Implementing STI/HIV prevention and care interventions for men who have sex with men in Senegal, Amadou Moreau, Placide Tapsoba, Abdoulaye Ly, Cheikh Ibrahima Niang, and Abdou Khoudia Diop

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Injecting drug users in India: Understanding sexual behaviours and sexual networks to design effective behaviour change strategies, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Aruna Bhattacharya, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Neville Selhore, Arjun Singh, and Louis Apicella

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Intergenerational communication on sexuality and HIV/AIDS: Exploring feasibility of building effective youth-adult partnerships to reduce young people's HIV vulnerabilities, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Sarat Chandra Pradhan, Saraswati Swain, Aradhana Nanda, Sanjit Patnayak, Sucheta Panda, and Rajendra Prasad

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Key findings from an evaluation of the mothers2mothers program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Carolyn Baek, Vuyiswa Mathambo, Sibongile Mkhize, Irwin Friedman, Louis Apicella, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Late marriage and the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, John Bongaarts

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"Life is still going on": Reproductive intentions among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa, Diane Cooper, Jane Harries, Landon Myer, Phyllis Orner, and Hillary J. Bracken

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Meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of people living with HIV: Challenges for health care providers, Shalini Bharat and Vaishali Sharma Mahendra

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Mobility and its liminal context: Exploring sexual partnering among truck drivers crossing the Southern Brazilian border, Sheri A. Lippman, Julie Pulerwitz, Magda Chinaglia, Alan E. Hubbard, Arthur Reingold, and Juan Diaz

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Our stories: Women speak out against HIV and AIDS—An interactive communication package for rural low-literate women, Vijaya Nidadavolu, Moumita Saha, and Vijaya Usha Rani

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Patterns and implications of male migration for HIV prevention strategies in Andhra Pradesh, Ravi K. Verma, Niranjan Saggurti, Madhumita Das, Saumya RamaRao, and Anrudh K. Jain

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Preparedness of Kenyan health workers to deliver HIV/AIDS services, National AIDS and STD Control Programme, Ministry of Health Kenya, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Horizons Program

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Promoting adherence through a directly administered antiretroviral therapy strategy in Mombasa, Kenya, Avina Sarna, Stanley Luchters, Scott Geibel, Matthew F. Chersich, Paul Munyao, Rick Homan, Susan Kaai, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Marleen Temmerman, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Promovendo normas e comportamentos eqüitativos de gênero entre homens jovens estratégia de prevenção do HIV/AIDS, Julie Pulerwitz, Gary Barker, Marcio Segundo, and Marcos Nascimento

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Psychosocial benefits of a mentoring program for youth-headed households in Rwanda, Lisanne Brown, Janet C. Rice, Neil W. Boris, Tonya R. Thurman, Leslie M. Snider, Joseph Ntaganira, Laetitia N. Nyirazinyoye, Edward Kalisa, and Emmanuel Nshizirungu

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Reaching truckers in Brazil with non-stigmatizing and effective HIV/STI services, Magda Chinaglia, Sheri A. Lippman, Julie Pulerwitz, Maeve de Mello, Rick Homan, and Juan Diaz

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Reaching truckers in Brazil with non-stigmatizing and effective HIV/STI services, Magda Chinaglia, Sheri A. Lippman, Julie Pulerwitz, Maeve de Mello, Rick Homan, and Juan Diaz

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Sexually transmitted infections in men in Mumbai slum communities: The relationship of prevalence to risk behavior, Stephen L. Schensul, Sarah Hawkes, Niranjan Saggurti, Ravi K. Verma, Sharad S. Narvekar, Bonnie K. Nastasi, Joseph A. Burleson, and Arun Risbud

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Sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive persons receiving ART in Mombasa, Kenya: Longitudinal study findings, Stanley Luchters, Avina Sarna, Scott Geibel, Matthew F. Chersich, Paul Munyao, Susan Kaai, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Naomi Rutenberg, and Marleen Temmerman

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Sexual risk-taking and HIV testing among health workers in Zambia, Karusa Kiragu, Thabale J. Ngulube, Mutinta Nyumbu, Panganani Njobvu, Peter Eerens, and Chilufya Mwaba

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Skinning the goat and pulling the load: Transactional sex among youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, R.K. Maganja, Suzanne Maman, Allison Groues, and Jessie K. Mbwambo

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Supporting volunteer mentors: Insights from a mentorship program for youth-headed households in Rwanda, Lisanne Brown, Tonya R. Thurman, Edward Kalisa, Janet C. Rice, Jean de Dieu Bizimana, Neil W. Boris, Leslie M. Snider, and Joseph Ntaganira

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The HIV/AIDS prevention project for vulnerable youth in northern Nigeria: Community advocates training manual, Population Council, Adolescent Health and Information Projects, Federation of Muslim Women's Associations in Nigeria, and Islamic Education Trust

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The Straight Talk Campaign in Uganda: Impact of mass media initiatives—Summary report, Susan E. Adamchak, Karusa Kiragu, Cathy Watson, Medard Muhwezi, Tobey C. Nelson, Ann Akia-Fiedler, Richard Kibombo, and Milka Juma

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Transcending boundaries to improve the food security of HIV-affected households in rural Uganda: A case study, Katharine Coon, Jessica Ogden, John Odolon, Anthony Obudi-Owor, Charles Otim, James Byakigga, and Peter Spebanja

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Understanding and measuring AIDS-related stigma in health care settings: A developing country perspective, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Laelia Gilborn, Shalini Bharat, Rupa Mudoi, Indrani Gupta, Bitra George, Luke Samson, Celine Daly, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Voices from the street: Comics for young men on masculinity, sexuality and HIV—An evidence-based communication initiative, Vijaya Nidadavolu, Leena Joshi, Vinita Nathani, Atanu Ghosh, and Isidore Phillips

Submissions from 2006

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ABC messages for HIV prevention in Kenya: Clarity and confusion, barriers and facilitators, Julie Pulerwitz, Tiffany Lillie, Louis Apicella, Ann P. McCauley, Tobey C. Nelson, Simon Ochieng, Peter Mwarogo, Karusa Kiragu, and Edward Kunyanga

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ABCs for HIV prevention in Kenya: Messages, beliefs, and barriers, Julie Pulerwitz, Tiffany Lillie, Louis Apicella, Ann P. McCauley, Tobey C. Nelson, Simon Ochieng, Peter Mwarogo, Karusa Kiragu, and Edward Kunyanga

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Acceptability of Carraguard vaginal gel use among Thai couples, Sara J. Whitehead, Peter H. Kilmarx, Kelly Blanchard, Chomnad Manopaiboon, Supaporn Chaikummao, Barbara Friedland, Jullapong Achalapong, Mayuree Wankrairoj, Philip A. Mock, Sombat Thanprasertsuk, and Jordan W. Tappero

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A cluster randomized-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of Stepping Stones in preventing HIV infections and promoting safer sexual behaviour amongst youth in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Trial design, methods and baseline findings, R. Jewkes, Mzikazi Nduna, J. Levin, N. Jama, K. Dunkle, N. Khuzwayo, M. Koss, A. Puren, Kate Wood, and N. Duvvury

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Analyzing successful condom use among factory workers and students in Mexico and the Dominican Republic, Lisa Goldman, Kara Richmond, Sandra G. Garcia, Eileen Yam, and Davida Becker

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An analysis of respondent driven sampling with injection drug users (IDU) in Albania and the Russian Federation, Ame Stormer, Waimar Tun, Lisa Guli, Arjan Harxhi, Zinaida Bodanovskaia, Anna Yakovleva, Maia Rusakova, Olga Levina, Roland Bani, Klodian Rjepaj, and Silva Bino

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Challenges to microbicide introduction in South Africa, Phyllis Orner, Jane Harries, Diane Cooper, Jennifer Moodley, Margaret Hoffman, Julie Becker, C. Elizabeth McGrory, Rasha Dabash, and Hillary J. Bracken

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Challenging and changing gender attitudes among young men in Mumbai, India, Ravi K. Verma, Julie Pulerwitz, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Sujata Khandekar, Gary Barker, P. Fulpagare, and S.K. Singh

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Community-based research in India: A case example of international and transdisciplinary collaboration, Stephen L. Schensul, Bonnie K. Nastasi, and Ravi K. Verma

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Context and dynamics of male-to-male sexual behavior of truckers in India: Findings from a multi-site qualitative research study, Ravi K. Verma, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Pertti J. Pelto, Sarat Chandra Pradhan, and Vibha Singh

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Context and dynamics of same-sex behavior among long-distance truckers in India: Findings from qualitative research, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Ravi K. Verma, Pertti J. Pelto, Sarat Chandra Pradhan, Vibha Singh, Asha Rao, and Tarun Vij

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Cost-effectiveness of environmental-structural communication interventions for HIV prevention in the female sex industry in the Dominican Republic, Michael D. Sweat, Deanna Kerrigan, Luis Moreno, Santo Rosario, Bayardo Gomez, Hector Jerez, Ellen Weiss, and Clare Barrington

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Costs and financial burden of care and support services to PLHA and households in South India, P. Duraisamy, A.K. Ganesh, Rick Homan, N. Kumarasamy, Christopher Castle, P. Sripriya, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, and Suniti Solomon

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Environmental-structural interventions to reduce HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Deanna Kerrigan, Luis Moreno, Santo Rosario, Bayardo Gomez, Hector Jerez, Clare Barrington, Ellen Weiss, and Michael D. Sweat

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Examining adherence and sexual behavior among patients on antiretroviral therapy in India, Avina Sarna, Indrani Gupta, Sanjay Pujari, A.K. Sengar, Rajiv Garg, and Ellen Weiss

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Expanding pediatric access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, Desiree Michaels, Brian Eley, Lewis Ndhlovu, Naomi Rutenberg, and Hena Khan

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Expanding the care continuum for HIV/AIDS: Bringing carers into focus, Jessica Ogden, Simel Esim, and Caren Grown

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Exploring current practices in pediatric ARV rollout and integration with early childhood programs in South Africa: A rapid situation analysis, Desiree Michaels, Brian Eley, Lewis Ndhlovu, and Naomi Rutenberg

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Gender, sexual behaviour and vulnerability among young people, Christine Ricardo, Gary Barker, Julie Pulerwitz, and Valeria Rocha

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Infants and young children living in youth-headed households in Rwanda: Implications of emerging data, Neil W. Boris, Tonya R. Thurman, Leslie M. Snider, Erin Spencer, and Lisanne Brown

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Informed Consent in HIV Prevention Trials: Report of an International Workshop, C. Elizabeth McGrory, Barbara Friedland, Cynthia Woodsong, and Kathleen M. MacQueen

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Involving men in reproductive health: Contributions to development, Margaret E. Greene, Manisha Mehta, Julie Pulerwitz, Deirdre Wulf, Akinrinola Bankole, and Susheela Singh

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"No party hat, no party": Successful condom use in sex work in Mexico and the Dominican Republic, Sandra G. Garcia, Eileen Yam, and Michelle Firestone

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Orphans and vulnerable youth in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: An exploratory study of psychosocial well-being and psychosocial support, Laelia Gilborn, Louis Apicella, Jonathan Brakarsh, Linda Dube, Kyle Jemison, Mark Kluckow, Tricia Smith, and Leslie M. Snider

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Preparedness for HIV/AIDS service delivery: The 2005 Kenya health workers survey, National AIDS and STD Control Programme and Ministry of Health Kenya

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Promoting gender equity among young Brazilian men as an HIV/AIDS prevention strategy, Julie Pulerwitz, Gary Barker, Marcio Segundo, and Marcos Nascimento

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Promoting more gender-equitable norms and behaviors among young men as an HIV/AIDS prevention strategy, Julie Pulerwitz, Gary Barker, Marcio Segundo, and Marcos Nascimento

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Protecting children's rights in the collection of health and welfare data, Katie D. Schenk, Tapfuma Murove, and Jan Williamson

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Protecting young women from HIV/AIDS: The case against child and adolescent marriage, Shelley Clark, Judith Bruce, and Annie Dude

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Psychosocial support and marginalization of youth-headed households in Rwanda, Tonya R. Thurman, Leslie M. Snider, Neil W. Boris, Edward Kalisa, Eleazer Nkunda Mugarira, Joseph Ntaganira, and Lisanne Brown

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Reducing AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Indian hospitals, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Laelia Gilborn, Bitra George, Luke Samson, Rupa Mudoi, Sarita Jadav, Indrani Gupta, Shalini Bharat, and Celine Daly

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Reducing stigma and discrimination in hospitals: Positive findings from India, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Laelia Gilborn, Bitra George, Luke Samson, Rupa Mudoi, Sarita Jadav, Indrani Gupta, Shalini Bharat, and Celine Daly

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Sex education and the news: Lessons from how journalists framed virginity pledges, Felicia E. Mebane, Eileen Yam, and Barbara K. Rimer

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Sexual risk behavior among South African adolescents: Is orphan status a factor?, Tonya R. Thurman, Lisanne Brown, Linda Richter, Pranitha Maharaj, and Robert Magnani

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Shifting support for inequitable gender norms among young Indian men to reduce HIV risk and partner violence, Ravi K. Verma, Vaishali Sharma Mahendra, Julie Pulerwitz, Sujata Khandekar, Gary Barker, P. Fulpagare, and S.K. Singh

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Strengthening care and support services in the era of treatment: Symposium report, Horizons Program

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Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass communication programs to change HIV/AIDS-related behaviors in developing countries, Jane T. Bertrand, Kevin R. O'Reilly, Julie Denison, Rebecca Anhang, and Michael D. Sweat

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The impact of an HIV and AIDS life skills program on secondary school students in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Shamagonam James, Priscilla Reddy, Robert A.C. Ruiter, Ann P. McCauley, and Bart van den Borne

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Understanding barriers and challenges to effective community participation in the rollout of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services: Report on research results dissemination meetings, Population Council and Health Systems Trust

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Understanding barriers to community participation in HIV and AIDS services: Final report, Ashnie Padarath, Catherine Searle, and Eka Esu-Williams

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Understanding barriers to community participation in HIV and AIDS services: Summary report, Population Council and Health Systems Trust

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Understanding the HIV/STI prevention needs of men who have sex with men in Kenya, Washington Onyango-Ouma, Harriet Birungi, and Scott Geibel

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'We are no longer called club members but caregivers': Involving youth in HIV and AIDS caregiving in rural Zambia, Eka Esu-Williams, Katie D. Schenk, Scott Geibel, Joseph Motsepe, Anderson Zulu, Petronella Bweupe, and Ellen Weiss

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Yaari Dosti: Young Men Redefine Masculinity, A Training Manual, Horizons Program, CORO for Literacy, MAMTA, and Instituto Promundo

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Yaari Dosti: Young Men Redefine Masculinity, A Training Manual [Hindi], Horizons Program, CORO for Literacy, MAMTA, and Instituto Promundo

Submissions from 2005

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Addressing the family planning needs of HIV-positive PMTCT clients: Baseline findings from an operations research study, Carolyn Baek and Naomi Rutenberg

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Effectiveness of female and male condoms in preventing exposure to semen during vaginal intercourse: A randomized trial, Loren Galvão, Laurione C. Oliveira, Juan Díaz, Dhong Jin Kim, Nadia Maria Marchi, Johannes van Dam, Roger F. Castilho, Michael Chen, and Maurizio MacAluso

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Ethical Approaches to Gathering Information from Children and Adolescents in International Settings: Guidelines and Resources, Katie D. Schenk and Jan Williamson

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Field experiences integrating family planning into programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, Naomi Rutenberg and Carolyn Baek

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Gendered socioeconomic conditions and HIV risk behaviours among young people in South Africa, Kelly Hallman

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How does a "risk group" perceive risk? Voices of Vietnamese sex workers in Cambodia, Joanna Busza

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Integrating family planning and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings, Ann Duerr, Stacey Hurst, Athena P. Kourtis, Naomi Rutenberg, and Denise J. Jamieson

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Preferences and practices related to vaginal lubrication: Implications for microbicide acceptability and clinical testing, Sarah Braunstein and Janneke van de Wijgert

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Programmatic implications of a cost study of home-based care programs in South Africa, Rick Homan and Catherine Searle