The Population Council's HIV and AIDS program is devoted to understanding and slowing the spread of the HIV epidemic. Through biomedical and behavioral research, the Council expands access to innovative and effective products and services, with a focus on the hardest-to-reach, most marginalized populations.

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Submissions from 2019

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Cell phone counseling improves retention of mothers with HIV infection in care and infant HIV testing in Kisumu, Kenya: A randomized controlled study, Avina Sarna, Lopamudra Saraswati, Jerry Okal, James K. Matheka, Danmark Owuor, Roopal Jyoti Singh, Nancy Reynolds, and Sam Kalibala

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Community-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery for female sex workers in Tanzania: 6-month ART initiation and adherence, Waimar Tun, Louis Apicella, Caterina Casalini, D. Bikaru, G. Mbita, K. Jeremiah, Neema Makyao, Todd Koppenhaver, and Lung Vu

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Community-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery for female sex workers in Tanzania: Intervention model and baseline findings, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Louis Apicella, Caterina Casalini, Neema Makyao, Samantha Tsang, Denna Michael, Todd Koppenhaver, and Erick Mlanga

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Dataset: Vulnerable street boys and girls in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Nrupa Jani, Lung Vu, Sam Kalibala, Gebeyehu Mekonnen, and Kay Lynn

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Gender-based violence and engagement in biomedical HIV prevention, care and treatment: A scoping review, Anna M. Leddy, Ellen Weiss, Eileen Yam, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Gender norms and HIV testing/treatment uptake: Evidence from a large population-based sample in South Africa, Julie Pulerwitz, Ann Gottert, Kathleen Kahn, Nicole Haberland, Aimee Julien, Suarez A. Selin, Rhian Twine, Dean Peacock, X. Gómez-Olivé, Sheri A. Lippman, and Audrey Pettifor

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HIV testing and counselling couples together for affordable HIV prevention in Africa, Kristin M. Wall, Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Etienne Karita, Bellington Vwalika, Joseph Mulenga, Rachel Parker, Tyronza Sharkey, Divya Sonti, Amanda Tichacek, Eric Hunter, Robert Yohnka, Joseph F. Abdallah, Ibou Thior, Julie Pulerwitz, and Susan Allen

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Implementation science: Helping to accelerate progress toward achieving the 90–90–90 goal, Waimar Tun, Vivian Go, and Aisha I. Yansaneh

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Individual and sexual network predictors of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria, Rebecca G. Nowak, Andrew Mitchell, Trevor A. Crowell, Hongjie Liu, Sosthenes Ketende, Habib O. Ramadhani, Nicaise Ndembi, Sylvia Adebajo, Julie Ake, William A. Blattner, Stefan Baral, and Manhattan E. Charurat

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Meeting the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children: Learnings from Project SOAR, Project SOAR

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New subtype B containing HIV-1 circulating recombinant of sub-Saharan Africa origin in Nigerian men who have sex with men, Erik Billings, Gustavo H. Kijak, Eric Sanders-Buell, Nicaise Ndembi, Anne Marie O'Sullivan, Sylvia Adebajo, Afoke Kokogho, Mark Milazzo, Kara Lombardi, Stefan Baral, Rebecca G. Nowak, Habib O. Ramadhani, Robert Gramzinski, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Manhattan E. Charurat, Julie Ake, Trevor A. Crowell, Sodsai Tovanabutra, MHRP Viral Sequencing Core, and TRUST/RV368 Study Group

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Prevalence and determinants of unprotected sex in intimate partnerships of men who inject drugs: Findings from a prospective intervention study, Vartika Sharma, Waimar Tun, Avina Sarna, Lopamudra Saraswati, Minh D. Pham, Ibou Thior, and Stanley Luchters

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Proposing a conceptual framework to address social norms that influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health, Julie Pulerwitz, Robert Blum, Beniamino Cislaghi, Elizabeth Costenbader, Cynthia C. Harper, Lori L. Heise, Anjalee Kohli, and Rebecka Lundgren

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Quality of care and HIV service utilization among key populations in Zambia: A qualitative comparative analysis among female sex workers, men who have sex with men and people who use drugs, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Maurice Musheke, H. Fisher Raymond, Ryan Keating, John Mwale, Lunda Banda, Drosin Mulenga, Lyson Phiri, Scott Geibel, and Waimar Tun

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Reproductive health and desire for children among young female sex workers in Bangladesh brothels, Eileen Yam, Nargis Sultana, Tarik Hossain, Brady Zieman, Shongkour Roy, Reena Yasmin, Najmus Sadiq, and Sharif M.I. Hossain

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Research capacity strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa: Recognizing the importance of local partnerships in designing and disseminating HIV implementation science to reach the 90–90–90 goals, Anna Kalbarczyk, Wendy Davis, Sam Kalibala, Scott Geibel, Aisha I. Yansaneh, Nina A. Martin, Ellen Weiss, Deanna Kerrigan, and Yukari C. Manabe

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Rising HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: A trend analysis, George I. Eluwa, Sylvia Adebajo, Titilope Eluwa, Obinna Ogbanufe, Oluwafunke Ilesanmi, and Charles Nzelu

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Social norms measurement: Catching up with programs and moving the field forward, Elizabeth Costenbader, Beniamino Cislaghi, Cari Jo Clark, Laura Hinson, Rachel Lenzi, Donna R. McCarraher, Courtney McLarnon-Silk, Julie Pulerwitz, Bryan Shaw, and Leigh Stefanik

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Strengthening capacity to prevent HIV among adolescent girls and young women: Supporting DREAMS programming, Project SOAR

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The People Living with HIV (PLHIV) Resilience Scale: Development and validation in three countries in the context of the PLHIV Stigma Index, Ann Gottert, Barbara Friedland, Scott Geibel, Laura Nyblade, Stefan Baral, S. Kentutsi, C. Mallouris, L. Sprague, J. Hows, F. Anam, Ugochukwu Amanyeiwe, and Julie Pulerwitz

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The prevalence and determinants of depression among HIV-positive perinatal women receiving antiretroviral therapy in India, Avina Sarna, Roopal Jyoti Singh, Mona Duggal, Prabha S. Chandra, and Nancy Reynolds

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Time to change the paradigm: Limited condom and lubricant use among Nigerian men who have sex with men and transgender women despite availability and counseling, Trevor A. Crowell, Stefan Baral, Sheree Schwartz, Rebecca G. Nowak, Afoke Kokogho, Sylvia Adebajo, Babajide Keshinro, Olumide Makanjuola, Nelson L. Michael, Merlin L. Robb, Manhattan E. Charurat, Julie Ake, and TRUST/RV368 Study Group

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Understanding women’s motivations to participate in MTN-003/VOICE, a phase 2b HIV prevention trial with low adherence, Ariana Katz, Barbara Mensch, Kubashini Woeber, Petina Musara, Juliane Etima, and Ariane van der Straten

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Use and acceptability of HIV self-testing among first-time testers at risk for HIV in Senegal, Carrie E. Lyons, Karleen Coly, Anna L. Bowring, Benjamin Liestman, Daouda Diouf, Vincent Wong, Gnilane Turpin, Delivette Castor, Penda Dieng, Oluwasolape Olawore, Scott Geibel, Sosthenes Ketende, Cheikh Ndour, Safiatou Thiam, Coumba Toure-Kane, and Stefan Baral

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Vaginal ring use in a phase 3 microbicide trial: A comparison of objective measures and self-reports of non-adherence in ASPIRE, Barbara Mensch, Barbara Richardson, Marla Husnik, Elizabeth R. Brown, Flavia Matovu Kiweewa, Ashley Mayo, Jared M. Baeten, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Ariane van der Straten, and MTN-020-ASPIRE Study Team

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Women and HIV: Understanding and addressing stigma—Evidence from the Population Council, Population Council

Submissions from 2018

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Addressing stigma and gender inequities to strengthen HIV and AIDS programming: A focus on key populations, Population Council

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Are services meeting the holistic family planning needs of female sex workers living with HIV in Tanzania?, Project SOAR

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Assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and costs of diagnosing HIV at birth in Lesotho and Rwanda, Michelle M. Gill, Heather Hoffman, Majoalane Mokone, Lynne Mofenson, Michel Tchuenche, and Steven Forsythe

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Asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum among Nigerian men who have sex with men, Trevor A. Crowell, Justin Hardick, Kara Lombardi, Zahra Parker, Afoke Kokogho, Senate Amusu, Sunday Odeyemi, Andrew Ivo, Stefan Baral, Rebecca G. Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, Manhattan E. Charurat, Julie Ake, Charlotte A. Gaydos, and TRUST/RV368 Study Group

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Benchmark assessment of orphaned and vulnerable children in areas of the Zambia Family (ZAMFAM) Project, Michael Mbizvo, Paul C. Hewett, Nkomba Kayeyi, Lyson Phiri, Saziso N. Mulenga, Bwalya Mushiki, and Mwelwa Chibuye

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Benchmark assessment of orphaned and vulnerable children in areas of the Zambia Family (ZAMFAM) Project—Brief, Michael Mbizvo and Paul C. Hewett

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Building the evidence base on the HIV programme in India: An integrated approach to document programmatic learnings, Deepika Ganju, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Rajatashuvra Adhikary, Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, and Gina Dallabetta

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Can depression screening be integrated into busy HIV clinics in Malawi? Early results demonstrate its feasibility and acceptability, Project SOAR—Malawi Mental Health

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Challenges to and opportunities for the adoption and routine use of early warning indicators to monitor pediatric HIV drug resistance in Kenya, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Jerry Okal, James K. Matheka, Irene Mukui, and Sam Kalibala

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Characterizing the unmet HIV prevention needs and HIV risk vulnerabilities of adolescent girls and young women in Ethiopia, Project SOAR

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Community organization membership, financial security, and social protection among female sex workers in India, Sangram Kishor Patel, Anrudh K. Jain, Madhusudana Battala, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Dataset: DREAMS Implementation Science: Phase 1 Analysis Data, Kenya, Sanyukta Mathur, Jerry Okal, Nanlesta Pilgrim, James K. Matheka, Nrupa Jani, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Dataset: DREAMS Implementation Science: Phase 1 Analysis Data, Zambia, Sanyukta Mathur, Maurice Musheke, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Drosin Mulenga, Lunda Banda, Nrupa Jani, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Dataset: Male partners of young women in Uganda: Understanding their relationships and use of HIV testing, Ann Gottert, Julie Pulerwitz, Anne Katahoire, Jerry Okal, Florence Ayebare, Nrupa Jani, Pamela Keilig, and Sanyukta Mathur

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Dataset: Tathmini GBV study: Evaluation of comprehensive gender-based violence programming delivered through the HIV program platform in Tanzania, Susan K. Settergren, Stella Mujaya, Wasima Rida, Lusajo Kajula, Hussein Kamugisha, Jessie K. Mbwambo, Felix Kisanga, Mucho M. Mizinduko, Megan S. Dunbar, Isihaka Mwandalima, Hijja Wazee, Diana Prieto, Saiqa Mullick, Jennifer Erie, and Delivette Castor

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Does a community-based, HIV service delivery model improve female sex workers’ care and treatment outcomes in Tanzania?, Project SOAR

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Early results demonstrate the importance of early treatment of HIV and the feasibility and acceptability of community-based antiretroviral treatment delivery for female sex workers in Tanzania, Project SOAR

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Engaging male partners of adolescent girls and young women in HIV services in Malawi: Findings from DREAMS implementation science research, Project SOAR

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Engendering healthy masculinities to prevent sexual violence: Rationale for and design of the Manhood 2.0 trial, Kaleab Z. Abebe, Kelley A. Jones, Alison J. Culyba, Nayck B. Feliz, Heather Anderson, Irving Torres, Sarah Zelazny, Patricia Bamwine, Adwoa Boateng, Benjamin Cirba, Autumn Detchon, Danielle Devine, Zoe Feinstein, Justin Macak, Michael Massof, Summer Miller-Walfish, Sarah Elizabeth Morrow, Paul Mulbah, Zabi Mulwa, Taylor Paglisotti, Lisa Ripper, Katie A. Ports, Jennifer L. Matjasko, Aapta Garg, Jane Kato-Wallace, Julie Pulerwitz, and Elizabeth Miller

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Evaluating a multidisciplinary integrated management team intervention to improve maternal and child outcomes and HIV service uptake and retention in Lesotho, Project SOAR

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"Even the fowl has feelings": Access to HIV information and services among persons with disabilities in Ghana, Uganda, and Zambia, Katie D. Schenk, Waimar Tun, Meredith Sheehy, Jerry Okal, Emmanuel Kuffour, Grimond Moono, Felix Mutale, Rita Kyeremaa, Edson Ngirabakunzi, Ugochukwu Amanyeiwe, and Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala

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Feasibility and acceptability of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in Nigeria, Population Council

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Female sex workers experiences of using contraceptive methods: A qualitative study in Kenya, Rhoune Ochako, Jerry Okal, Steven Kimetu, Ian Askew, and Marleen Temmerman

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Female sex workers living with HIV in Tanzania have both a need for contraception and a desire to have children in the future, Project SOAR

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Gender-transformative Bandebereho couples’ intervention to promote male engagement in reproductive and maternal health and violence prevention in Rwanda: Findings from a randomized controlled trial, Kate Doyle, Ruti G. Levtov, Gary Barker, Gautam G. Bastian, Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, Shamsi Kazimbaya, Anicet Nzabonimpa, Julie Pulerwitz, Felix Sayinzoga, Vandana Sharma, and Dominick Shattuck

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Health and socioeconomic well-being of young people living with HIV in Zambia: Evaluating the ZAMFAM Project, Project SOAR

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High burden of HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers in Tanzania: Implications for early treatment of HIV and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), Lung Vu and Kavita Misra

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High rates of sexual violence by both intimate and non-intimate partners experienced by adolescent girls and young women in Kenya and Zambia: Findings around violence and other negative health outcomes, Sanyukta Mathur, Jerry Okal, Maurice Musheke, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Sangram Kishor Patel, Ruchira Bhattacharya, Nrupa Jani, James K. Matheka, Lunda Banda, Drosin Mulenga, and Julie Pulerwitz

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How empowered are girls/young women in their sexual relationships? Relationship power, HIV risk, and partner violence in Kenya, Julie Pulerwitz, Sanyukta Mathur, and Daniel Woznica

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Implementing the HIV “treat all” guidelines in Namibia: Patient and health provider perspectives, Project SOAR

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Individual and network factors associated with HIV care continuum outcomes among Nigerian MSM accessing healthcare services, Habib O. Ramadhani, Nicaise Ndembi, Rebecca G. Nowak, Uchenna Ononaku, Jerry Gwamna, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Sylvia Adebajo, Trevor A. Crowell, Hongjie Liu, Stefan Baral, Julie Ake, Manhattan E. Charurat, and TRUST/RV368 Study Group

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Male partners of adolescent girls and young women: Relationship characteristics and HIV risk—Findings from DREAMS implementation science research, Population Council

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Male partners of young women in Uganda: Understanding their relationships and use of HIV testing, Ann Gottert, Julie Pulerwitz, Godfrey Siu, Anne Katahoire, Jerry Okal, Florence Ayebare, Nrupa Jani, Pamela Keilig, and Sanyukta Mathur

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Measuring vulnerability among female sex workers in India using a multidimensional framework, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Ruchira Bhattacharya, Yamini Atmavilas, and Niranjan Saggurti

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Modeling the expected cost-effectiveness and impact of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in Uganda and Swaziland, Project SOAR

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Molecular screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance markers in Nigerian men who have sex with men and transgender women, Akindiran Akintunde, Justin Hardick, Trevor A. Crowell, Kara Lombardi, Sunday Odeyemi, Andrew Ivo, George I. Eluwa, Jean Njab, Stefan Baral, Rebecca G. Nowak, Thomas C. Quinn, Kent Barbian, Sarah Anzick, Sylvia Adebajo, Manhattan E. Charurat, Julie Ake, and Charlotte A. Gaydos

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Namibia has a strong foundation for implementing the treat all guidelines and reaching the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, Project SOAR

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Optimizing implementation of universal HIV treatment coverage for people living with HIV in Senegal, Project SOAR

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Provider perspectives on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: The role of provider biases and quality of care, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Nrupa Jani, Sanyukta Mathur, Catherine Kahabuka, Vaibhav Saria, Neema Makyao, Louis Apicella, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Reducing provider-held stigma and improving young client satisfaction in strengthening integrated delivery of and access to comprehensive HIV and sexual/reproductive health and support services for MSM in Lagos, Nigeria, Population Council

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Replication Data for: Provider perspectives on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: The role of provider biases and quality of care, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Nrupa Jani, Sanyukta Mathur, Catherine Kahabuka, Vaibhav Saria, Neema Makyao, Louis Apicella, and Julie Pulerwitz

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Strengthening capacity to prevent HIV among adolescent girls and young women: Supporting DREAMS-like programming, Project SOAR

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Understanding the dynamics of HIV testing services in South African primary care facilities, Tonderai Mabuto, Bhakti Hansoti, Salome Charalambous, and Christopher Hoffmann

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Uptake of HIV self‐testing and linkage to treatment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria: A pilot programme using key opinion leaders to reach MSM, Waimar Tun, Lung Vu, Osasuyi Dirisu, Adekemi Sekoni, Elizabeth Shoyemi, Jean Njab, Sade Ogunsola, and Sylvia Adebajo

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What do we know about the HIV risk characteristics of adolescent girls and young women in Kenya? Findings from DREAMS Implementation Science research, Population Council

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What do we know about the HIV risk characteristics of adolescent girls and young women in Zambia? Findings from DREAMS implementation science research, Population Council

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Who are the male partners of adolescent girls and young women in Swaziland? Analysis of survey data from community venues across 19 DREAMS districts, Zahra Reynolds, Ann Gottert, Erin Luben, Bheki Mamba, Patrick Shabangu, Nsindiso Dlamini, Muhle Dlamini, Sanyukta Mathur, and Julie Pulerwitz

Submissions from 2017

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Adolescent girls and young women’s perceptions of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis introduction in Tanzania: Findings from implementation science research, Population Council

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Are we meeting the HIV service needs of people living in informal settlements in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa?, Project SOAR

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Assessing HIV-related outcomes among key populations accessing community-based test and start services in Nigeria, Project SOAR

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Assessment of comprehensive HIV-risk reduction programming for adolescent girls and young women: Implementation science research in Kenya, Population Council

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Assessment of comprehensive HIV-risk reduction programming for adolescent girls and young women: Implementation science research in Zambia, Population Council

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Assessment of the implementation of the treat-all guidelines (Test and Start) in Namibia, Project SOAR

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A systems approach to improving delivery and update of facility-based HIV testing and linkage to care in South Africa, Project SOAR

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Characteristics associated with HIV and HSV-2 among adolescents in Malawi, Barbara Mensch and Erica Soler-Hampejsek

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Considerations for PrEP introduction to adolescent girls and young women: Implementation science research in Tanzania, Population Council

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Correlates of health care utilization under targeted interventions: The case of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India, Varun Sharma, Dipak Suryawanshi, Niranjan Saggurti, and Shalini Bharat

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Effective engagement of male partners of adolescent girls and young women in HIV services: Implementation science research in Swaziland, Population Council

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Effective engagement of male partners of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa, Population Council

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Effective engagement of male partners of adolescent girls and young women in Uganda, Population Council

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Effect of a family-centered model of HIV care on viral suppression and care retention among HIV-positive children in Swaziland, Project SOAR

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Evaluating community-facility linkage models to promote mother-infant retention along the HIV care continuum, Project SOAR

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Evaluation a depression treatment program on HIV care and mental health outcomes in Malawi, Project SOAR

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Evaluation of the “One Community” program in Malawi, Project SOAR

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Evaluation of the PEPFAR/USAID Asibonisane Community Responses Program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Project SOAR

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Factors associated with HIV testing among young men who have sex with men in Myanmar: A cross-sectional study, Minh D. Pham, Poe Poe Aung, Aye Kyawt Paing, Naanki Pasricha, Paul A. Agius, Waimar Tun, Ashish Bajracharya, and Stanley Luchters

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Family planning for HIV-positive girls and young women, Eileen Yam, Elizabeth Tobey, and Amy Ong Tsui

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Gender differentials in feeding practices, health care utilization and nutritional status of children in Northern India, Abhishek Singh and Sangram Kishor Patel

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HIV and disabilities: Time for more and better data, Waimar Tun and Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala

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HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviour of young brothel and non-brothel based female sex workers in Nigeria, Uchenna Onyekachi Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Okekearu Ifeanyi, Sylvia Adebajo, and Hubertus Van den Borne

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Impact of an HIV prevention intervention on HIV risk behavior and sexually transmitted infection among female sex workers in Tamil Nadu, India, Joseph D. Williams, Arumugam Vijayaraman, Priya Krishnaswamy, Niranjan Saggurti, Sowmya Ramesh, and Deepika Ganju

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Improving uptake of HIV testing services and linkage to care after diagnosis in Kenya, Project SOAR

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Increasing uptake of HIV, sexually transmitted infection, and family planning services, and reducing HIV-related risk behaviors among youth living with HIV in Uganda, Lung Vu, Brady Zieman, Cecily Banura, Jerry Okal, Margret Elang, Rodgers Ampwera, Georgina Caswell, Diana Amanyire, Jacquelyne Alesi, and Eileen Yam

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Inequitable gender norms from early adolescence to young adulthood in Uganda: Tool validation and differences across age groups, Lung Vu, Julie Pulerwitz, Brady Zieman, Cecily Banura, Jerry Okal, and Eileen Yam