The factorial focus group methodology described in this guide provides a powerful means of illuminating the social norms that uphold female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and the ways in which meanings have at times become contested or rejected. The methods described here can be applied to the study of a wide range of behaviors influenced by social norms, such as early marriage, adoption of contraception, and more.
Shell-Duncan, Bettina, Amadou Moreau, Katherine Wander, and Sarah Smith. 2019. "Reference guide: Factorial focus group analysis methods for studying social norm change." Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Girls and Women Thrive. New York: Population Council.
Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Girls and Women Thrive