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This project brief is based on the results of a situation analysis (SA) study that was done collaboratively by the Population Council and Sudan Ministry of Health (MOH) with funds from UNFPA, UNICEF, and Packard Foundation. The analysis showed an uneven distribution of reproductive health (RH) staff across Sudan, and nurses and nurse midwives are the key in RH services. There was also limited access to family planning services. Antenatal care was limited, and pregnant women in the study seldom received counseling on birth spacing or birth preparedness. Birth attendants also lacked adequate knowledge and skills. Emergency obstetric care was also lacking in many secondary and tertiary care facilities, which put women suffering from labor complications at greater risk. The situation analysis has pointed to a number of gaps in the availability and quality of maternal and neonatal health services, which contribute to the high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality in Sudan.