This paper examines the case of Pakistan, where primary school enrollment among girls in rural areas is substantially lower than among children in urban areas and boys in rural areas, owing to lack of access to government girls’ schools. The focus is on teacher absence as a further barrier to schooling for girls. Using data from a panel study of primary schooling in rural Punjab and NWFP in 1997 and 2004, the report examines trends in teacher absence, examine the factors correlated with teacher absence in the government and private sector, and assesses the implications of these absence levels for access to schooling among enrolled boys and girls.
Ghuman, Sharon and Cynthia B. Lloyd. 2007. "Teacher absence as a factor in gender inequalities in access to primary schooling in rural Pakistan," Poverty, Gender, and Youth Working Paper no. 1. New York: Population Council.