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The global discussion of climate change and its impacts and causes has changed completely in the past quarter century. Scientific opinion now accepts that rapid warming is occurring and that greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted as a result of human activities are largely to blame. The consequences of taking no action will be catastrophic. Unfortunately, the burden of impact will fall disproportionately on the poor and most vulnerable people who rely heavily on agriculture in countries where average temperatures are already high. Climate change is particularly harmful because it increasingly threatens food security in these countries. Pakistan is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world. This monograph uses diverse data sources to initiate an interdisciplinary conversation on the interlinkages of climate change and demography through contributions from national experts in meteorology, migration, and agriculture. The aim is to provide a regionally nuanced perspective of the climatic changes to which the population is exposed; the key demographic and socioeconomic trends that have a bearing on vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation; internal migration; and the expected combined impact of these dynamics on the country’s food and economic mainstay—agriculture.






Climate Change Vulnerability and Resilience in Pakistan; Population, Environmental Risks, and the Climate Crisis (PERCC); Evaluating the Complex Relationships Between Social and Natural Systems