In population–environment systems human activity is inherently part of the system rather than something to be minimized in order to maintain or restore “natural” environmental conditions. Issues arising in managing such systems are discussed in this paper. The system’s boundaries must be identified, defining its human participants and its ecological content. Procedures for monitoring demographic and environmental change in the system must be set up and consensus must be reached on how to evaluate that change.
McNicoll, Geoffrey. 2000. "Managing population-environment systems: Problems of institutional design," Policy Research Division Working Paper no. 139. New York: Population Council. Version of record: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3115271