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This analysis was published in Pediatric Pulmonology in a special journal issue on “Pediatric Pneumonia in Nigeria.” Pneumonia remains the leading infectious cause of child mortality worldwide despite declines in pneumonia-related child mortality rates since 2000 globally. In Nigeria, approximately 134,000 deaths among children under 5 years were due to pneumonia in 2017. Prompt treatment of pediatric pneumonia symptoms is a cornerstone of child survival programs but remains a challenge in Nigeria. Psychosocial influences, or ideations, directly influence pathways to care but have not been previously measured nor examined for pediatric pneumonia. Kincaid’s Ideation Model of Strategic Communication and Behavior Change theorizes that psychosocial influences, or ideations, are intermediate determinants that help catalyze a person's decision to engage in a specific action such as care-seeking or treatment for pneumonia symptoms. This model guided development of ideational metrics for pediatric pneumonia care-seeking and treatment behaviors. In this analysis, we aimed to develop a set of pneumonia-related ideational factors and to examine the extent of their associations with care-seeking from formal medical sources and antibiotic use for children under 2 years with pneumonia symptoms in northwestern Nigeria.






Breakthrough RESEARCH