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Aside from their educational attainment, economic activity levels, and age at marriage, little is known about the lives of young people in India, especially the extent to which and the contexts in which they form romantic, marital, and other partnerships or the nature of these partnerships. At a time when India's youth policy and reproductive and child health programs have acknowledged the need to focus on youth, it is central that these gaps in understanding are filled. The KEM Hospital Research Centre and the Population Council conducted a study in Maharashtra in 2003–05 to obtain information on romantic and sexual partnership formation and sexual activity among young people (aged 15–24) through a large-scale community-based survey and related textual data gathering. The study examined the formation and experiences of partnerships among young women and men, as described in this brief. To better understand the context in which young people live, the study explored young people's own capabilities, notably their decision-making authority, perceptions of self-worth, mobility, gender role attitudes, and awareness about sexual and reproductive matters, as well as their family relations and social networks.