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This report presents the results of a longitudinal study of changing educational opportunities in rural Punjab and N.W.F.P. from 1997 to 2004. The purpose of the study was to answer two major research questions: what were the effects of changes in schooling opportunities in the community over the past six years on enrollment and attainment, and what were the effects on family planning and fertility behavior? This study builds on an earlier study undertaken in 1997. As noted in this report, the study is innovative in several ways: (1) it is longitudinal; (2) it combines consideration of three dimensions of schooling opportunity structures in the community—access, choice, and quality; (3) it considers the availability of school choice, in particular private versus government and religious versus secular, as a factor in educational attainment and performance; and (4) it defines schooling opportunity structures separately for boys and girls on all three dimensions—quality, choice, and access. The longitudinal nature of the study has two dimensions: a school component and a household-based component. All schools visited in the first survey were revisited in the second survey as were women previously interviewed in 1997.