Endocrine manipulation in male infertility
Endocrine therapy for male infertility is broadly categorized as specific or nonspecific therapy. Although uncommon, primary endocrine diagnoses in infertile men are amenable to targeted therapy. The efficacy of empiric endocrine therapy for idiopathic male infertility, however, has not been demonstrated conclusively by clinical trials. With better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of idiopathic male infertility, careful evaluation of endocrine therapy in well-selected treatment groups and well-designed randomized, controlled trials is warranted. Although empiric endocrine therapy for idiopathic male infertility has been largely replaced by assisted reproductive techniques, both treatment modalities could play a role, perhaps as combination therapy.
Kim, Howard H. and Peter N. Schlegel. 2008. "Endocrine manipulation in male infertility," Urologic Clinics of North America 35(2): 303–318.