Delivery of contraceptives to men: Lesson from other therapeutic drugs
Besides hormonal-based male contraceptives, such as testosterone undecanoate (a long-chain ester of testosterone) which can be administered either orally as contraceptive pill or by injection, some efforts have been made in the field to develop non-hormonal contraceptives to suppress spermatogenesis. One of the major goals for non-hormonal contraceptives is to avoid a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, without affecting the systemic testosterone, LH and FSH levels, hoping to minimize the side-effects since testosterone has multiple target organs besides the testis. However, these non-hormonal male contraceptives are often met with poor absorption at the gastrointestinal tract and if they are peptide/protein based, they are subjected to proteolytic cleavage following oral administration. Thus, other non-oral routes are being considered. In this short review, we highlighted some of the latest development in the field regarding the administration of other therapeutic drugs via non-parenteral and non-oral routes. This information as briefly reviewed herein should provide some insights for delivery of male coutraceptives in the future.
Wong, Elissa W.P., Dolores D. Mruk, and C. Yan Cheng. 2008. “Delivery of contraceptives to men: Lesson from other therapeutic drugs,” Immunology, Endocrine and Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 8(1): 91–94.