Unique profile of inflammation and immune activation in pregnant people with HIV in the United States

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Article (peer-reviewed)

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Background: Little is known about inflammation/immune activation during pregnancy in people with HIV (PWH) and growth in their children who are HIV-exposed and uninfected (CHEU). Methods: Using data from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study and an HIV-seronegative comparison group, we assessed associations of (1) HIV status, mode of HIV acquisition (perinatally vs nonperinatally acquired), and type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with inflammation/immune activation in pregnancy; and (2) inflammation/immune activation in pregnancy with growth of CHEU at 12 months. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble(s) TNF-α receptor 1 and 2 (sTNFR1, sTNFR2), sCD14, and sCD163 were measured between 13 and 27 weeks’ gestation. Linear regression models were fit to estimate differences between groups for each log-transformed biomarker, adjusted for confounders. Results: Pregnant PWH (188 total, 39 perinatally acquired, 149 nonperinatally acquired) and 76 HIV-seronegative persons were included. PWH had higher IL-6, sTNFR1, sCD14, and sCD163 and lower sTNFR2 compared to HIV-seronegative persons in adjusted models. Among PWH, sCD163 was higher in those with perinatally versus nonperinatally acquired HIV and on PI-based versus INSTI-based ART. Higher maternal concentrations of IL-6, sTNFR2, and hs-CRP were associated with poorer growth at 12 months. Conclusions: Maternal HIV status is associated with a distinct profile of inflammation/immune activation during pregnancy, which may influence child growth.