Development of mucoadhesive electrospun scaffolds for intravaginal delivery of Lactobacilli spp., a tenside, and metronidazole for the management of bacterial vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an infection of the vagina associated with thriving anaerobes, such as Gardnerella vaginitis and other associated pathogens. These pathogens form a biofilm responsible for the recurrence of infection after antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study was to develop a novel mucoadhesive polyvinyl alcohol and polycaprolactone electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for vaginal delivery, incorporating metronidazole, a tenside, and Lactobacilli. This approach to drug delivery sought to combine an antibiotic for bacterial clearance, a tenside biofilm disruptor, and a lactic acid producer to restore healthy vaginal flora and prevent the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis. F7 and F8 had the least ductility at 29.25% and 28.39%, respectively, and this could be attributed to the clustering of particles that prevented the mobility of the crazes. F2 had the highest at 93.83% due to the addition of a surfactant that increased the affinity of the components. The scaffolds exhibited mucoadhesion between 31.54 ± 0.83% and 57.86 ± 0.95%, where an increased sodium cocoamphoacetate concentration led to increased mucoadhesion. F6 showed the highest mucoadhesion at 57.86 ± 0.95%, as compared to 42.67 ± 1.22% and 50.89 ± 1.01% for the F8 and F7 scaffolds, respectively. The release of metronidazole via a non-Fickian diffusion-release mechanism indicated both swelling and diffusion. The anomalous transport within the drug-release profile pointed to a drug-discharge mechanism that combined both diffusion and erosion. The viability studies showed a growth of Lactobacilli fermentum in both the polymer blend and the nanofiber formulation that was retained post-storage at 25 °C for 30 days. The developed electrospun scaffolds for the intravaginal delivery of Lactobacilli spp., along with a tenside and metronidazole for the management of bacterial vaginosis, provide a novel tool for the treatment and management of recurrent vaginal infection.
Ilomuanya, Margaret O., Peace O. Bassey, Deborah A. Ogundemuren, Uloma N. Ubani-Ukoma, Alkiviadis Tsamis, Yuwei Fan, Konstantinos Michalakis, Pavimol Angsantikul, Abdulrahman Usman, and Andrew N. Amenaghawon. 2023. "Development of mucoadhesive electrospun scaffolds for intravaginal delivery of Lactobacilli spp., a tenside, and metronidazole for the management of bacterial vaginosis," Pharmaceutics 15(4): 1263.