Gestational weight gain in persons with HIV in the United States

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Article (peer-reviewed)

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Objective: We evaluated gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant persons with HIV (PWH) enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities study. Design: This was a cohort study. Methods: GWG was classified as excessive, adequate, or inadequate; weekly GWG in second and third trimesters was calculated using National Academy of Medicine standards. Adjusted modified Poisson and linear regression models were fit with generalized estimating equations to assess the association of antiretroviral treatment (ART) with GWG outcomes stratified by timing of ART initiation [at conception (ART-C) and initiating during pregnancy (ART-I)]. Results: We included 1477 pregnancies (847 ART-C, 630 ART-I) from 1282 PWH. The proportion of excessive, adequate, and inadequate GWG was 44, 24, and 32%, respectively. No associations of ART class with excessive GWG were observed overall. However, among ART-I pregnancies with overweight prepregnancy BMI-based, protease inhibitor-based, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART were associated with significantly lower GWG per week than integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based ART [mean differences: -0.14, -0.27, and -0.29 kg/week, respectively]. Among ART-I pregnancies with obese prepregnancy BMI, lower weekly GWG was also observed for protease inhibitor-based vs. INSTI-based ART (mean difference: -0.14 kg/week). Conclusion: ART class type was not associated with excessive GWG. However, PWH entering pregnancy already overweight/obese and initiating INSTI-based ART had higher weekly GWG in second and third trimesters vs. other ART classes. Further studies to understand how increases in weekly GWG for overweight/obese PWH impinges on long-term maternal/child health are warranted.