Freeze-drying for the preservation of immunoengineering products

Document Type

Article (peer-reviewed)

Publication Date



Immunoengineering technologies harness the power of immune system modulators such as monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, and vaccines to treat myriad diseases. Immunoengineering innovations have showed great promise in various practices including oncology, infectious disease, autoimmune diseases, and transplantation. Despite the countless successes, the majority of immunoengineering products contain active moieties that are prone to instability. The current review aims to feature freeze-drying as a robust and scalable solution to the inherent stability challenges in immunoengineering products by preventing the active moiety from degradation. Furthermore, this review describes the stability issues related to immunoengineering products and the utility of the lyophilization process to preserve the integrity and efficacy of immunoengineering tools ranging from biologics to nanoparticle-based vaccines. The concept of the freeze-drying process is described highlighting the quality by design (QbD) for robust process optimization. Case studies of lyophilized immunoengineering technologies and relevant clinical studies using immunoengineering products are discussed.