Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence
Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adult males). In this review, we discuss the recent findings that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects Leydig cell function in the postnatal testis. This review also focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of how Leydig cell factors contribute to phthalate-mediated TDS.
Hu, Guo-Xin, Qing-Quan Lian, Renshan Ge, Dianne O. Hardy, and Xiao-Kun Li. 2009. "Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence," Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 20(3): 139–145.