Immunomodulatory effects of HSV-2 infection on immature macaque dendritic cells modify innate and adaptive responses
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) infect human and murine dendritic cells (DCs) and interfere with their immunostimulatory functions in culture. HSV-2 infection increases human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread in patients, and DCs also promote HIV infection. We have studied these topics in rhesus macaque monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) to set the stage for future studies of these issues in animals. We provide the first evidence that macaque DCs become infected by HSV-2. Structural viral proteins (ICP5 [infected cell protein 5], glycoprotein D [gD], envelope) were detected in the cell periphery, and a functional protein (infected cell protein 8 [ICP8]) was predominantly found in the nucleus after infection. Infectious HSV-2 induced apoptotic death, decreased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86, and increased release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) (CCL3), and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted) (CCL5) but not IL-12 or interferon-α (IFN-α) by macaque DCs. This coincided with HSV-2-infected DCs stimulating weak T-cell responses, including impaired SIV-specific responses. Comparable HSV-2 protein expression, DC apoptosis, as well as membrane immunophenotype and functional modifications were observed in HSV-2-exposed human moDCs. Such HSV-2-induced modifications of macaque and human DCs could augment DC-driven immunodeficiency virus infection. This work affords the basis for future macaque studies to explore how HSV-2 impacts the efficacy of strategies being developed to prevent HIV transmission.
Peretti, Silvia, Andrew Shaw, James Blanchard, Rudolf Bohm, Gavin Morrow, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Agegnehu Gettie, and Melissa Robbiani. 2005. "Immunomodulatory effects of HSV-2 infection on immature macaque dendritic cells modify innate and adaptive responses," Blood 106(4): 1305–1313.