Drivers of clean fuel adoption and consumption intensity at the household level in Pakistan

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Article (peer-reviewed)

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The use of solid fuel (dirty fuel) that includes firewood, coal, charcoal, crop residue, kerosene, and dung cake is hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors influencing the household-level transition to clean fuel. Against this backdrop, the present study analyzes the clean fuel choice and consumption intensity using the latest HIES 2018–2019 data. Findings revealed that 76 and 14% of households in Pakistan use dirty cooking fuel in rural and urban areas, respectively. In addition, choices of fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting fuel vary across provinces. Probit and Tobit model shows that income, wealth, urban location, small family size, and fewer women and children influence households’ transition towards clean fuel. The study underscores the importance of tailored policies, including tariff structures, pricing mechanisms, and financial incentives, to accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient and clean technologies. These recommendations aim to drive sustainable energy access, economic growth, and environmental sustainability in Pakistan.