Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency among children and adolescents from a nationally representative survey in India

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Article (peer-reviewed)

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Objective: We carried out a secondary analysis of data of Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey 2016-18 to analyze the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among Indian children and adolescents. Results: The overall prevalence of VDD in preschool children (1-4 years), school age (5-9 years) children, and adolescents (10-19 years) was 13.7%, 18.2%, and 23.9%, respectively. Age, living in urban area, and winter season were significantly associated with VDD. Vegetarian diet and high-income households were the main risk factors observed in 5-19 years age category. Female sex and less than three hour of physical activity/week were independent risk factors among adolescents. Conclusion: The prevalence and determinants of VDD across different age-groups are reported, and these should be interpreted and addressed to decrease the burden of VDD in India.