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This brief focuses on the policy options available to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) government to affect the province’s population growth by 2050 and its potential to achieve MDGs 4 and 5. Maternal mortality is a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age in KP—about 27 percent of the deaths in this age group are pregnancy-related. Approximately 1,700 women die each year in KP due to pregnancy-related factors. Pregnancies that occur too early, too late, or too frequently increase the risk of maternal death. Lowering fertility rates by increasing the use of family planning can help reduce pregnancy-related deaths. The good news is that there has been a decrease in maternal mortality in KP. The maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 423 in 2001; in 2006, it was 275; and by 2012 it had fallen to 206 per 100,000 live births. This brief combines a wide range of data sources to make the case for prioritizing family planning to meet MDGs 4 and 5. Although fertility rates have declined in KP, wide differentials persist and greater efforts are required to establish parity in the fertility decline, especially in rural KP.