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This brief focuses on the policy options available to the Balochistan government to affect the province’s population growth by 2050 and its potential to achieve MDGs 4 and 5. Maternal mortality is a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age in Balochistan—about 35 percent of the deaths in this age group are pregnancy-related. Approximately 3,000 women die each year in Balochistan due to pregnancy-related factors. Pregnancies that occur too early, too late, or too frequently increase the risk of maternal death. Lowering fertility rates by increasing the use of family planning can help reduce pregnancy-related deaths. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Balochistan declined from an estimated 1,551 to 785 between 2001 and 2006. By 2012, however, the MMR is estimated to have risen to 996 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. This high level of maternal mortality is an outcome of low levels of maternal health care. This brief combines a wide range of data sources to make the case for prioritizing family planning to meet MDGs 4 and 5.