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In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development affirmed that sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are human rights. The Government of the Republic of Zambia has fully committed to fulfilling the SRHR of all people by ratifying 11 international instruments of law. This brief is Part 1 of a three-part series entitled “Status of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Zambia,” reporting on progress, gaps, and existing challenges in SRHR. Using a human rights–based approach, the Government of Zambia and collaborators, with technical facilitation by the Population Council, conducted an assessment of the status of SRHR in the country whose aim was to assess Zambia’s commitment to fulfilling government obligations on seven SRHR-related development goals: 1) access to contraceptive information and services; 2) access to safe abortion and postabortion-care services; 3) maternal health care; 4) prevention and treatment of HIV; 5) comprehensive sexuality education; (6) violence against women and girls; and (7) rights of marginalized populations, particularly adolescents and sex workers. The assessment finds that Zambia is making progress, but reports on remaining gaps and challenges.