As the world grapples with the HIV pandemic, the implementation of the agenda determined by the International Conference on Population and Development (1994) at Cairo, and the matter of providing health services of adequate quality in an ethical, gender-sensitive manner, new questions are arising about how to attend to reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs), among women. This paper reviews the results of validation studies of syndromic algorithms, other nonlaboratory clinically based tools, and risk scoring for finding women infected with chlamydia and gonorrhea, particularly among those attending family planning and antenatal clinics in developing countries. The results raise challenges for policymakers in sorting through what course of action is most appropriate in a particular context. Research and policy analysis for determining the best approach for addressing chlamydia/gonorrhea infection in settings with different prevalence rates, program capacity, and sexual behavior patterns are lacking. The report concludes that simple low-cost diagnostics for use in resource-poor settings are desperately needed.
Haberland, Nicole, Beverly Winikoff, Nancy L. Sloan, Christiana Coggins, and Christopher J. Elias. 1999. "Case finding and case management of chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among women: What we do and do not know," Robert H. Ebert Program on Critical Issues in Reproductive Health Publication Series. New York: Population Council.
Robert H. Ebert Program on Critical Issues in Reproductive Health