In Indonesia, the practice of female circumcision (FC) has long existed, but information concerning where and how it is carried out has been limited. The specific aims of the study conducted by the Population Council Jakarta were to provide research-based information on FC customary practices and their socio-cultural determinants, and if possible, to assess any long-term physical and psychological consequences. Study findings indicate that in general Muslim communities support the continuation of FC practice, because they perceive it as both a societal custom and a religious duty. The report strongly recommends that key donor agencies pressure the Ministry of Health to protect girls and women's sexual and reproductive rights. While policy and law enforcement can address the available supply of medical providers for the practice, mass communication should be used to reduce the demand for FC from the community, which can facilitate consensus-building and collective decisionmaking in support of abandoning the practice.
Budiharsana, Meiwita P., Lila Amaliah, Budi Utomo, and Erwinia. 2003. "Female circumcision in Indonesia. Extent, implications and possible interventions to uphold women's health rights," research report. Jakarta: Population Council.
A Research Agenda to End Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in a Generation