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At the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994, the nations of the world agreed to give special attention to girls’ education, women’s health, infant survival, and women’s empowerment, and to provide comprehensive reproductive health (RH) services to enable couples to achieve their reproductive goals. The government of India launched a reproductive and child health program in October 1997. This book begins a review of the processes underway to operationalize the program. It brings together several important initiatives at various stages of development and examines key policy and program issues based on empirical research and field experience. The authors provide an analysis of the fertility transition; assess the outcome of removing method-specific contraceptive targets that had driven the program for decades; present new methodologies and indicators for monitoring and evaluating a decentralized program; and discuss the resource needs for implementing it. Efforts to forge new partnerships, mechanisms to enhance women’s empowerment, advocacy initiatives to make the paradigm shift a reality for India, and services to address reproductive health problems are reviewed. Adolescents and men, neglected by past programs, are brought into the discourse.