Document Type


Publication Date



Funding for reproductive health services is stagnant or declining globally, yet population projections, particularly in Africa, indicate that demand for services will increase in the near term. Between 2002 and 2025, for example, the population of women of childbearing age (15–49) is expected to increase by 2 percent annually in sub-Saharan Africa. With this growth will come increased demand for contraception, and other reproductive health services such as antenatal care, safe birthing services, and postpartum care for mothers and children. Concern about increasing demand for services has led program managers to examine the productivity and costs of existing programs. While all programs can advocate for additional funds from their governments and establish or increase prices for services to clients, often they can also use their existing resources more efficiently. Increasing provider productivity—the time they spend with clients—can permit clinics and nonclinical programs to meet increased service demands and enhance quality, without requiring significant additional funding. This brief focuses on provider time use and how programs can make better use of existing labor resources in clinic programs. The data come from ten time-use studies conducted in nine countries in Asia and the Near East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa.






Frontiers in Reproductive Health