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The increasing number of children in Kenya who are orphaned or made vulnerable (OVC) from HIV/AIDS and other factors calls for a holistic understanding of their situation so that effective programs to address their needs can be designed. This is especially important for those areas hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, such as Nyanza Province. Little is known about the vulnerabilities of older orphans to risky sexual behavior, and whether they are more vulnerable than nonorphans. The Department of Children’s Services has initiated a cash transfer program to households taking care of OVC. The main objective is to provide a social protection system through regular cash transfer to households living with OVC to encourage fostering and retention of OVC within their families and communities and to promote human capital development. A central concern is how the program can minimize the sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities of OVC. As indicated in this report, the study was commissioned to provide a better understanding of the situation of OVC in Nyanza Province and the opportunities to reduce OVC vulnerability.