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In 2003, South Africa announced its intention to roll out possibly the largest HIV and AIDS treatment program in the world. Much attention is currently focused on supply-side issues, particularly drug procurement and pricing. Far less attention has been paid to demand for and delivery of treatment, care, and support services. Further, although the role of the community and community organizations is articulated in government policy there has been little active engagement with NGOs on the development of these roles or how to encourage community organizations to support and participate in the antiretroviral (ARV) rollout. As noted in this final research report, this study collected data on barriers and challenges to the use of services and on involvement of community organizations in HIV and AIDS and ARV services for use in the design and implementation of appropriate interventions. The objectives were to improve understanding of the context of the utilization of public health HIV and ARV services, and assess the role communities and community-based organizations can play in implementing the government’s HIV and AIDS plan for the ARV rollout.