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Maharashtra was one of the first states to be affected by HIV in India. Results from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) in 2005–06 indicate that 0.62 percent of men and women aged 15–49 years were infected with HIV, as compared to the national average of 0.28 percent. HIV sentinel surveillance data from sites across Maharashtra indicate that 1.3 percent of pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) and 10.4 percent of patients receiving treatment for sexually transmitted infections in 2005 were infected with HIV. At the same time, Maharashtra ranks first nationally in the proportion of total migrants, and there is a growing consensus among policymakers and program managers that migration could be a major contributor in the spread of HIV in the state. However, empirical evidence to support or refute this conjecture is limited. To address this research gap, the Population Council studied the patterns and motivations related to the migration of male laborers and their linkages with HIV risk. The purpose of the research, as stated in this brief, was to document patterns of male migration and determine whether there was a relationship between migration and HIV prevalence.