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This report undertakes a systematic assessment of the need for evidence by decision-makers working on HIV and AIDS funding and policymaking, and implementing organizations at the national and subnational levels in Nigeria. The assessment identifies barriers and constraints to data use, identifies best practices, and offers recommendations for the design and prioritization of strategic approaches to address barriers and constraints in data use and production. Tools to monitor the adoption of evidence in policy and practice are also offered. The need for evidence-based practice in the national response to HIV and AIDS has been widely acknowledged and incorporated into policy guidance, the National Strategic Plan, and the National Research Agenda on HIV and AIDS. The political will for more evidence exists, yet this has not translated into the prioritization and financing of research. Likewise, many stakeholders have limited engagement in the design, coordination, dissemination, and utilization of research. To address these objectives, a literature review of knowledge production and utilization was conducted, along with a series of workshops to investigate policymaker and practitioner perspectives on data uses.