Intrauterine devices are the most widely used of all reversible contraceptive methods worldwide. Modern IUDs are among the most effective and long-acting methods of family planning and are acceptable options for many women. This monograph presents highlights of the clinical performance of the Copper T 380 over eight years, including the latest data on effectiveness, expulsions, and continuation rates. It incorporates data from Population Council and World Health Organization studies, and work by scientists at Family Health International and in several countries. Clinical studies of the three models of the Copper T 380 have provided substantial evidence of the safety, effectiveness, convenience, acceptability, and long-acting quality of this IUD. The bulk of the material in this document presents preclinical and clinical performance, including mechanisms of action, effectiveness, outcome of accidental pregnancy, rates of expulsion and ectopic pregnancy, side effects, continuation rates, return to fertility, and lactation and IUD use. There is also discussion of the data on IUD use and pelvic inflammatory disease, and the importance of performing skilled insertions under aseptic conditions.
Sivin, Irving, Forrest Greenslade, Frederick H. Schmidt, and Sandra N. Waldman. 1992. "The Copper T 380 Intrauterine Device: A Summary of Scientific Data." New York: Population Council.