Effects of a novel estrogen-free, progesterone receptor modulator-contraceptive vaginal ring on inhibition of ovulation, bleeding patterns and endometrium in normal women
Background: Progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) delivered by contraceptive vaginal rings provide an opportunity for development of an estrogen-free contraceptive that does not require daily oral intake of steroids. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to determine whether continuous delivery of 600–800 mcg of ulipristal acetate (UPA) from a contraceptive vaginal ring could achieve 80% to 90% inhibition of ovulation. Study Design: This was a prospective, controlled, open-labeled, multicenter international trial to examine the effectiveness and safety of this prototype vaginal ring. Thirty-nine healthy women, 21–40 years old and not at risk of pregnancy, were enrolled at three clinic sites. Volunteers participated in a control cycle, a 12-week treatment period and a post-treatment cycle. Pharmacodynamic effects on follicular function and inhibition of ovulation, effects on endometrium, bleeding patterns and serum UPA levels were evaluated. Results: Mean UPA levels during treatment were nearly constant, approximately 5.1 ng/mL throughout the study. Ovulation was documented in 32% of 111 "4-week treatment cycles." A correlation was observed between serum UPA and degree of inhibition of ovarian activity. There was no evidence of hyperplasia of endometrium, but PRM-associated endometrial changes were frequently observed (41%). Conclusion: In this study, the minimum effective contraceptive dose was not established. Further studies are required testing higher doses of UPA to attain ovulation suppression in a higher percentage of subjects.
Brache, Vivian, Régine Sitruk-Ware, A. Williams, Diana Blithe, Horacio B. Croxatto, Narender Kumar, Sushma Kumar, Yun-yen Tsong, Irving Sivin, Anita Nath, Heather Sussman, Leila Cochon, Marie-José Miranda, Veronica Reyes, Anibal Faundes, and Daniel R. Mishell, Jr. 2012. "Effects of a novel estrogen-free, progesterone receptor modulator-contraceptive vaginal ring on inhibition of ovulation, bleeding patterns and endometrium in normal women," Contraception 85(5): 480–488.
The Potential of Ulipristal as a Long-Acting Contraceptive and Therapy for Female Hormone Replacement