Adjudin attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and ischemia-induced microglial activation
Neuroinflammation caused by microglial activation plays a key role in ischemia, neurodegeneration and many other CNS diseases. In this study, we found that Adjudin, a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive, exhibits additional function to reduce the production of proinflammatory mediators. Adjudin significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 release and IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α expression in BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, Adjudin exhibited anti-inflammatory properties by suppression of NF-kB p65 nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity as well as ERK MAPK phosphorylation. To determine the in vivo effect of Adjudin, we used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) mouse model and found that Adjudin could reduce ischemia-induced CD11b expression, a marker of microglial activation. Furthermore, Adjudin treatment attenuated brain edema and neurological deficits after ischemia but did not reduce infarct volume. Thus, our data suggest that Adjudin may be useful for mitigating neuroinflammation.
Shao, Jiaxiang, Tengyuan Liu, Qian Reuben Xie, Tingting Zhang, Hemei Yu, Boshi Wang, Weihai Ying, Dolores D. Mruk, Bruno Silvestrini, C. Yan Cheng, and Weiliang Xia. 2013. "Adjudin attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and ischemia-induced microglial activation," Journal of Neuroimmunology 254(1): 83–90.
Development of Adjudin as a Male Contraceptive