Novel non-oral hormonal contraceptive methods for women

Document Type

Article (peer-reviewed)

Publication Date



The rising number of unintended pregnancies worldwide could be attributed to contraceptive failure or an unmet need for contraceptives. Noncompliance and improper use constitute the most common causes of contraceptive failure. There is a need to explore and widen the availability of contraceptives, especially those that may be delivered via the non-oral route, and long-acting methods that may improve compliance. While several non-oral hormonal contraceptives have been approved or made available over the past few years, such as intrauterine systems, injectables and subdermal implants, other methods, such as contraceptive vaginal rings and transdermal patches, are relatively newer entrants in the contraceptive market. A number of non-oral contraceptive methods, such as vaginal gels, transdermal sprays and transdermal gel, as well as products containing different steroidal agents, are in various stages of clinical development. Current research is also focusing on the feasibility of new methods bringing additional health benefits, such as providing dual protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including the prevention of HIV transmission.