The functional roles of 11β-HSD1: Vascular tissue, testis and brain
Glucocorticoid hormones bind both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) exerting a broad spectrum of actions in various tissues. The concentrations of glucocorticoid hormones in the target cells are regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, type 1 (11β-HSD1) and type 2 (11β-HSD2). 11β-HSD2 is a unidirectional dehydrogenase, which inactivates biologically active glucocorticoid into inert metabolite, while 11β-HSD1 is a bi-directional oxidoreductase, which either inactivates biologically active glucocorticoid or activates inert metabolite into active forms. GRs and MRs are present in various tissues and mediate a broad spectrum of physiological actions. The co-existence of 11β-HSD1 with these two types of receptors plays an important role in regulation of glucocorticoid actions. This review examines the roles of 11β-HSD1 in vascular tissues, testis, brain and other tissues such as placental, retinal and adipose tissues.
Morris, David J., Andrew S. Brem, Renshan Ge, P. Harry Jellinck, Randall R. Sakai, and Matthew P. Hardy. 2003. "The functional roles of 11 β-HSD1: Vascular tissue, testis and brain," Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 203(1–2): 1–12.