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The global community came together in July 2012 in pursuit of an ambitious yet essential goal: ensuring that 120 million additional women and girls have access to effective family planning information and services by 2020. National governments, civil society, and the private sector resolved to tackle the numerous supply and demand barriers that prevent many women from using contraceptives. Donors committed $2.6 billion in new funding to support these efforts, matched by pledges from many developing-country governments. To reap the benefits of family planning, clients must have easy access to a wide range of affordable contraceptive methods through multiple service delivery channels in a good-quality, reliable fashion. In 2012, the Population Council completed two publications summarizing the existing evidence, recommending best practices for program implementation, and highlighting gaps in family planning research. To achieve their FP2020 commitments, national programs need more evidence and a deeper understanding of how to increase access and improve equity in the provision of family planning services. The Population Council’s work identified 12 knowledge gaps that should be addressed. This policy brief proposes ways to close five of the most critical gaps.