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Policymakers and researchers have long hypothesized the potential benefits of integrating HIV prevention, treatment, and care with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in settings with generalized HIV epidemics. In addition to improving health and social outcomes, integration of services holds the promise of increasing efficiency of service delivery and maximizing health care resources. Economic theory suggests several potential efficiency advantages at the service and programmatic levels. However, evidence on the unit cost and efficiency gains associated with integration remains scarce. The “Steps to Integration” series provides a guide on how to integrate HIV and SRH services based on findings from the Integra Initiative, managed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in partnership with the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and the Population Council. Issue 4 of the series, focusing on cost and technical efficiency of integrated HIV and SRH services in Kenya and Swaziland, concludes that variability in unit costs and cost components for all services has the potential to reduce costs of delivery through better use of both human and capital resources.






Assessing the Benefits of Integrated HIV and Reproductive Health Services: The Integra Initiative