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Although Bangladesh has established a comprehensive physical infrastructure to deliver health and family planning services with a network of primary health care facilities in rural areas, the impact of this health service network has been much less than expected because services do not reach all regions effectively. Two divisions, Sylhet and Chittagong, remain the most disadvantaged in terms of health and population outcomes and access to services, compounded by poor utilization of facilities in these areas. Moreover, the current health and population sector programs are beset with human resources and infrastructural problems. The Population Council organized a workshop to find answers to a key question: how can service delivery be improved in low-performing and hard-to-reach areas. This report shows that the workshop’s objectives were to: review current and emerging health and family planning issues particularly in low-performing and hard-to-reach areas; identify areas of deficiency in service delivery; and develop strategies for improving the performance of the health and population sectors in low-performing and hard-to-reach areas. Discussions were centered on human resources and infrastructure; behavior change communication and advocacy; and supplies and logistics.