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The main objectives of this project in Pakistan were to explore the core issue of availability of health providers, especially female providers who are required for provision of maternal and neonatal healthcare, and to determine the range of factors that either constrain or motivate providers to serve in key positions in public facilities in rural areas. The study, conducted by the Population Council with funding from the Maternal and Newborn Health Programme ‐ Research and Advocacy Fund, identifies a number of problems faced by healthcare providers working in the public healthcare system in Pakistan and makes the following recommendations for consideration by policymakers: 1) ensure implementation of a “Human Resource for Health Management” system; 2) enforce strict adherence to organizational policies on recruitment, transfer, and promotion; 3) improve the physical work environment and ensure the availability of equipment, medicine, and supplies; and 4) put in place a national private practice regulation policy.