Prevalence, trends, and determinants of menopause in India: NFHS 1992–93 to NFHS 2005–06

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Article (peer-reviewed)

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of menopause in three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), determine correlates of menopause, and estimate the age of start of menopause in Indian women. Methods: Three rounds of NFHS data collected during 1992–93, 1998–99, and 2005–06 were analyzed. The NFHS was carried out using a uniform sample design all over the country. Age adjusted complex sample analyses, multivariate logistic regression, and probit analysis were carried out. Results: The prevalence of menopause (natural and surgical) remained similar from 1992–93 to 2005–06 among Indian women. A higher prevalence and earlier onset of menopause was associated with farming, no education, belonging to a scheduled caste or scheduled tribe, underweight, higher parity, and motherhood before 16 years of age. The age of the start of menopause did not increase much from the first to third round of NFHS. Conclusions: Women of poor socio-economic status have an earlier age at menopause and may be unable to utilize their full reproductive potential.